That is not a census per se, rather, it is a tax, or tithable, list. Tax collectors would count the number of tithables in a household to generate the lists. Tithables were those people in a given age bracket who could work a plantation or farm and were therefore taxable. It is not a true census in the sense that it will not count every person in a household, only those who could be taxed. However, in the absence of annual census records, or in the case of destroyed census records in Virginia, they can be quite valuable.
The ages that were taxable varied over the years so I suggest you start by reading the Virginia Library research notes on tithables, tax lists and personal property tax lists which can be found here:
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