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Re: Sarah Ann Oxendine, b. Robeson Cnty, NC
Posted by: Karmen Slater-Earnheart (ID *****0792) Date: May 22, 2010 at 21:41:22
In Reply to: Re: Sarah Ann Oxendine, b. Robeson Cnty, NC by Karmen Slater-Earnheart of 455

"The earliest Oxendine in America that we can trace is John Oxendine. His name was written John Oxendine in Northumberland County, Virginia court records dated 1727, 1734 and 1741. However, Northumberland County, Virginia church records spelt his name John Oxendane when his children were born during the 1730's. Northumberland County is situated in the eastern part of the State on the Atlantic plain, bordering Chesapeake Bay on the south side of the Potomac. The birth of John's children was recorded in 'Virginia County Court Abstracts, v.3, Northumberland County Record of Births, page 112'."

From Charles Oxendine's book, titled, "Oxendine Census Records, 1790-1920".

John Lockaleer, John Oxendine and David Braveboy were among the first Indians in Robeson to be granted land from the King of England. -- Robeson Co., NCGenWeb Cheraw (Lumbee) descent.

John Oxendine had five, not four, sons, the youngest being Cudworth (Cood) OXENDINE and it was his daughter, Elizabeth, born 1780, who married William "Billy" Jackson in 1805 in Jackson Co. Tenn. Cudworth's brother, Charles had a daughter also named Elizabeth, b. c1775. I don't know her family history but it was her cousin, not she, that married Billy Jackson who was also the brother of Naomi Jackson who was one of the consort's of David Oxendine, Elizabeth's brother and her husband's brother-in-law. .

1) 1 John "Figro" Oxendine
Birth: c1695, Virginia
Spouse: Sarah. Still living in 1770.

Notes: John Oxendine appears to be the patriarch of the Oxendine family, and the very first Oxendine actually turned up todate. . John, born around 1694-96, a mixed-race man [the African-American book] in Virginia who was" bound as a servant" till age 31. He sued William and Elizabeth Wildey for his freedom in Northumberland Cty, Va. in Jan 1724. He lived in Northumberland Co. in the 1730s; Bladen Co..N..C in the 1750s. and was still alive in 1758 as he wanted to be excused from paying taxes. on August 27, 1753.

On August 27, 1753, John Johnson , Jr entered 100 acres in Bladen Co. N.C. on the north side of Pugh's marsh whereon John Oxendine was then living. (Bladen County Land Entries #805). In 1759 , he and two of his sons, John and Benjamin, lived in the Drowning Creek area of Bladen Co. N. C. which is the upper part of the Lumbee River area., where his son, John, buys 100 acres including improvements from his father, John Oxendine, Sr. some years later, the family moved on to S. C. The population of Virginia in 1850 was 15,000; by 1685 it has increaed 400 percent.

From John sprang all Oxendine Lines that we know of. Names and antecedents of mixed race slaves are rarely apparent, anymore than the name of the family horse or a favorite dog, nor is the logic of many of their surnames. [Credit due to Lisa Shea for locating the historial information on this family line: website: indian/sitemap.html


Oxendines trace their roots to the Lumbee Indians of Tennessee, also known as Croatans, a sub-culture of the Cherokees. The Oxendine name means "One who came from, or lived near, the Ox hill." William Penn's mother was named ... Lady Oxenden which may be neither here nor there.

Unlike their cousins, the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Nation who have an organized Reservation in North Carolina, the Lumbees were actually a collection of mixed race Algonkian (especially Cherokee) and Siouan tribes, having no tribal affiliations or traditions but with enough Indian decent to put they under the BIA and state segreation laws of the 1800s. In 1900 they were poor farmers, living in the mountains of North Carolina, with no reservation, no tribal affiliations and virtually no Indian culture. All they had left was an oral tradition, many disadvantages and Pride..."The American Indian" by Oliver LaFarge, 1973.

They were part of a larger group or classification, MELUNGEON. a tri-racial mixture of excaped black slaves and beached inpressed sailors from Spanish ships who may have North African (Moors), Armenians and Greek, Turks and even some Asians who went inland and inter-married with Indian tribes and North Eurdopeans evandng the law in the Central Atlantic area of the Carolinas and Tenn.

The Lumbee Indians are named after the Lumbee River, and reside mostly in North Carolina / South Carolina. They were made up of Cheraw Indians (Siouan) and Croatan Indians (Algonquian). The reason tribes merged in early days was that the settlers brought smallpox and other diseases with them, and many tribes lost up to 90% of their members. The remaining survivors had to regroup together with other local indians to rebuild.

Records date back to the 1700s on this group of Indians. Common family names in the Lumbee tribe are Brayboy, Brooks, Carter, Chavis, Cumbo, Locklear, Lowry, Oxendine, and Revels. It's rumored that the lost town of Roanoke actually merged in with the Croatan Indians - they carved the word "Croatoan" on a tree when they left, and didn't leave any other emergency indicators that it had been a raid. The Lumbees did indeed have surnames used that matched those of settlers, and spoke fluent English, even in those early days.

Lost Colony of Roanoke

Because of this early influx of English language and style, most traditional clothing and information was lost. The Lumbee were dressing like "everyone else" by the time people started documenting things. It is assumed they wore beaded headbands with a feather or two, and knee-length skirts (women) or breechcloth (men). Moccassins were common for all Indian footwear. When Scottish immigrants "found" the Lumbee Indians in Robeson County, NC in the 1730s, the Indians already were speaking English and living in English style houses.

Crafts included basketry and wood carvings. Food included deer, turkey, corn, beans, squash - but again the English came in so quickly that soon they were living much as other settlers did.

The Lumbees were very mixed race right from that beginning, and were often not really considered "Indians" when things such as the Trail of Tears occurred. In addition to absorbing the entire Roanoke colony, they also intermarried with blacks and other indians. However, Henry Berry Lowrie was a Lumbee who was furious with the injustices and during the 1860s he beame sort of a "Robin Hood", causing all sorts of mischief and never being caught.

In the mid to late 1800s, I found records saying that the Indians in North Carolina (i.e. the Lumbees) were sent to special schools along with the negros. They were not allowed into the white schools.

By 1910 the Croatans (i.e. Lumbees) didn't like their original name, it was being used as a term of derision in their homelands. They started calling themselve Cherokee. This upset the main Cherokees who felt the tribes were quite distinct. So in 1933 the Lumbees officially adopted the title of Lumbee, from a river in the region.

Children of John Oxendine:

(2) 1.1 Benjamin Oxendine
Birth: 12 Apr 1733, Northumberland Co Va.

Notes: Had moved on to Bladen Co. N. C. with his father by 1758 as he purchased 100 acres of improved farm land him.
Research: Childrens' records are in the Virginia County Court Abstracts v3, Northumberland County Record of births, page 112.

(2) 1.2 Jennie Oxendine
Birth: 14 Feb 1735, Northumberland Co Va.

(2) 1.3 Clark Oxendine
Birth: 28 Nov 1737

(2) 1.4 John Oxendine
Birth: 10 Jun 1739, Northumberland Co Va.

(2) 1.5 Charles Oxendine
Birth: 1741

Children of Charles Oxendine, s/o John:
Benjamin born ~1761
John born ~1762
Charles born ~1763
Jesse born ~1763
Moses born ~1764
Aaron born ~1764
David born ~1765
Nancy born ~1765
Betsy born ~1769
Mary born ~1770
Catherine born ~1771
Sarah Ann born ~1772
Wilson Oxendine, born ~1810

(2) 1.6 Cudworth (Cood) OXENDINE
Birth: <1750, Bladen Co. N. C.(?)

Notes: Elder Jackson Family members & Oxendine descendants alledge that Elizabeth's father was a Cherokee Indian Chief whose tribe had hunting grounds in an area all the way from Central Tennessee (most of the Cumberland Plateau) to near Nashville which was close to their main villege. It was further alledged that this Chief was probably Chief Little Feather Doublehead.

A Chief Double Head was reported as being in negotations with the U. S. Government in 1790 according to Cherokee records. He was persuaded to sign over most his tribal hunting grounds to the United States on 25 Oct 1805.

Recent updates by Lisa Shea [see John Oxendine above ,and her website < have shattered this yarn. The Oxendine clan seems to have stemed from a single member, John, son of a mixed race marriage. His son, Cadworth, was the first generation of "freeborn men" in the Oxendine line. "Cood" or "Cud" had David, Elizabeth and five other children, un-known, by an unkown wife. In the 1790 Census, Cud and family were still iln Georgetown, S. C.- Prince George Parish - Roll 11, Book 1

2 free white males age 16+
3 free white males < 16
5 free white females (ageless)

Other records have an undated John "Osendine".Charleston, S. C. - Christ Church Parish ,M637 Roll: 11 Part: 1 Page: 558A {Name mis-spelled and never in any other records)

Also listed in the 1800 Census Marion Co. S. C.. Roll 49, Book 1, Page 462. with family members ten years older except two who have 'flown the coop.". There are still no other families by this name in the State. In 1810 and 1820, males, Aaron, Cudworth and Charles Oxendine, are still listed as citizens of the State; Aaron in Sumter and the others in Marion Dist.

Subsequently, there were many intermarriages, one of which was Elizabeth with William Jackson as well as two of her children who married into the Woolbright Family. Many of these folks including Negro , Indian & "Black Irish' were listed as 'freeborn colored' ( until the 1850 Tenn. Census. Slaves were listed seperately.

Cudworth was a taxable "Mulato" in Bladen Co. N. C. in 1768 and 1769. In 1787, this section of Bladen County became Robeson County.

The Oxendine Family was said to be of the Melungeon.Clan of Tennessee Cherokees [althugh this is actually more of a genetic rather than a n actual tribal group, [see below.]

Research: Letha Commer Woolbright, commenting on John Roy Dillard's feature in 'The Dispatch', page 6; Cookeville, Tenn., Sunday, May 24, 1987.thru Enoch Jackson & Sentha (Centhia) Woolbrigh's son, Francis Marion Jackson.; "Robert K. Ellingwood" <>

Children: Aaron (1764-)
Archibald (1766-1869)
David (1775-1830)
Elizabeth (1780-1826) m. William "Billy' Jackson m.. , 1805, Jackson Col. Tenn.

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