Cedar Township was a unit of government, and still is, hence the census designation. Cedar Valley refers to the South Cedar area. Yes, there was a church, associated with the Brethren, near the South Cedar Cemetery. It was closed before my time (I was a boy in the 50s) and the building was destroyed by a tornado some years ago. I have no idea where you would find the church records. I am not familiar with the names you mention. There was no homesteading in that part of Kansas (first land ownership was by pre-emption, beginning in 1857, whereas the Homestead Act was not passed until 1862, and it allowed people to gain farms by making a claim, building a house, planting an orchard and crops and living on the place for five years, then they got the land for free).