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Re: Looking for descendants passed Thomas Jernigan
Posted by: Jerry Jernigan (ID *****1273) Date: November 27, 2005 at 15:57:08
In Reply to: Re: Looking for descendants passed Thomas Jernigan by Jerry Jernigan of 1399

Here is what i have so far:

This is for my personal use only and nly published here to see the accuracy. This is the work of many people. Thank you all.

Anyone know who the parents were of Prince Bryan (King Scoland???I cant see to find him anywhere)??????

Also looking for info on my wifes family (Collier)


What's in a name? The Scriptures tell us that "A good name is rather to be chosen than silver or gold." Families with the name Jernigan have been marching down through the annals of history since the year 1020 when Prince Bryan left the kingdom of his father King Scoland in Denmark. At the invitation of King Canute of England, Prince Bryan married Sabilla, the first mother of all Jernigans, and made his home just north of London. Prince Bryan and his descendants residing in England became lords, knights, barons, exchequers, judges, advisors, ministers of state, members of Parliament, etc., for hundreds of years. They were among the nobility in the Kingdom of England as their predecessors had been in Denmark, in Germany, and in other countries for thousands of years.

Coat of Arms - Denmark
You'll notice the spelling of the name Jernigan has undergone some changes. According to John Bennet Boddie, Historical Southern Familes, the name was changed to Jerningham because one side of the family disliked the other side of the family and sought to differentiate themselves by the spelling of the name. When our emigrant Jernigan came to America he embraced the egalitarianism of his new land and changed the spelling back because, according to Pabst, "Thomas Jernegan, the American immigrant did not believe that any individual should be exalted over his kin nor his neighbors in this new country of liberty and freedom."

The Jernigan name has so many different spellings and variations that it boggles the minds of most Jernigan researchers. Some of the spellings include Jarnagan, Jarnegan, Jannikin, Janagen, Jernagan, Jonikan, Johnikin, Jonikin, Journagan, Jernegan, Jermegan, Jonerkin, Jernican, Jurnigan, Gernigan, Jerningham, Jarningham, and so on.

The Manor House today

From about 838 AD for nearly two centuries, East Anglia was subject to Danish and Viking raids, including pillaging, burning, and looting. The village of Somerleyton derived its name from a Viking explorer (raider) named Sumarlithi - a warrior-name meaning "Summer-Warrior-Mariner". He settled in the area prior to 900 AD, and the area became Sumarlithi's tun, or Sumarlithi's town.
Some researchers suggest, in fact, that the original Jernegan was a Danish swordmaker who perfected the process of iron-braid metallurgy (later referred to as the damascening process).
At any rate, the estate at Somerleyton was held by a Sir Peter Fitzobert, whose son, Sir Roger was lord of the manor during the reign of Henry III and Edward I until he died in 1305. After Sir Roger's death, the estate passed to his sister, Isabella, because Sir Roger had no children. Isabella, widow of Sir Henry de Walpole subsequently married Sir Walter Jernegan, and the estate remained in the Jernegan family by descent until its sale to the Wentworth family in 1604.
The manor which is now on the estate is the fourth such splendid residence to be on the property, and was built in about 1840. Thus sadly, no Jernigans ever lived in the current manor.

Also located in the village of Somerleyton is St. Mary's Church, which dates to about 1309. Behind the altar of St. Mary's is a sepulchre of dark marble, with the inscription,
Jesus Christ both God and man
Save thy servant Jernegan

Quoting from "A Thousand Years of Village History", "Camden conjectured it to be the monument of Sir Richard Jernegan, Privy Councillor to Henry VIII, but the arms of Appleyard which appear on it impaled with Jernegan suggest it to be the tomb of Sir Thomas Jernegan (d. 1446) who married Joan Appleyard of Dunston in Norfolk."
"A previous Sir Thomas, who died in 1406, and his wife, glazed the church windows at their own expense. The old stone floor of the chancel covers the remains of Edward Jernegan who died 6th May 1515, and was buried by the side of his first wife, the inscription reading:
"Margaret jernegan the wyef of Edward Jernegan Esquyer, d. of Sir Edmund Bedingfelde Knt, which Margaret dyed the XXIIII of March anno MDIIII"
At the rear of the church is a placque with the names of Rectors and "Patrons" of the church, from 1309 to the modern times. Prominent among the Patrons during the period 1354 - 1553 were several Jernigans, notable John Jernegan, and Edward Jernegan. A later John Jernegan, Knight is listed as a patron.
There is an additional property, named Costessey, which was granted to Henry Jerningham for service to Queen Mary. The branch who settled there changed the spelling of their names to Jerningham, to distinguish it from the main branch, but the coat of arms is very similar – having three scallop shells in lieu of the three lozenge shaped red buckles. This Henry was the son of Sir Edward and second wife Mary Scroope. His son Henry Jerningham Esq md as 2nd wife his 1st cousin 2twice removed, Frances, daughter and co-heir of John Jernegan of Somerleyton. The Costessey manor no longer exists. But the present manor, though not the original, has incorporated the beautiful carved wood paneling from the original Jernegan home. The Jernegan arms are preserved in stained glass above the staircase in the main hall.
There is also reportedly a Jernegan crest in either the Knights hall of Westminster Abbey, or in the Privy Council chambers (Sir Richard Jernegan was very close to Henry VIII) although I have not seen them. Those more persistent than I may have better luck.
At any rate we can all be very proud of the fact that we bear one of the oldest and most respected surnames in English history, and that our ancestors had a marked effect on the course of events in English history.

Generation 1
Prince Bryan Jernegan (b. Abt. 1000, d. date unknown)
Bryan Jernegan was born Abt. 1000 in Denmark, and died date unknown. He married Sibilla

Uncertain of date, but Bryan was the first to be called Jernigan, He was called so by King Canute, who called him from Denmark to stand with him in Norfolk County.
Bryan was a Danish Prince, a Viking. Bryan's descendants were prominent in England, intermarrying with the descendants of William the Conqueror, the royal family of England. The prominence of the family figured in the emigration of our Jernigan ancestors to the New World. The British Jernigan’s supported Queen Mary, the Catholic daughter of Henry VIII. When Elizabeth I came to the throne, she stripped Sir Henry of his lands for his ardent support of Queen Mary.

More than 1000 years ago, Gorm the Old ruled in Denmark. That, the
Danes say, was the beginning of the oldest monarchy in Europe.
His descendants and their accomplishments were many.
One of them was King Knut, or King Canute, who ruled that portion of
the British Isles now called England. He conquered England in 1013, and became King in 1017.

Generation 2
Jernegan, b. Abt. 1030, England, d. date unknown.

Generation 3
Jernegan, b. Abt. 1065, England, d. date unknown.

Generation 4
Jernegan, b. Abt. 1090, England, d. date unknown.

Generation 5
Hugh or Hubert Fitz Jernegan (Fitzhugh) was born 1120 and died 1182, married Maude de Warhaby
Child: Hugh or Hubertson Jernegan

Generation 6
Hugh or Hubertson Jernegan was born 1140 in England and married Ellen Ingaldestrop

One source says that the name is Celtic and began as 0 Bret
Iarnuuocon and was brought by the Bretons at the Conquest, later changing through the years to Jerningham, then to Jernigan with many different spellings. The name Jernigan means "iron-famous".

Authentic history, however, says that the name goes back to about 1100 to Jernegan Fitz-hugh, or Jernegan the son of Hugh. His wife was Sibill and their son was called Hugh or Hubert son of Jernegan. Jernegan Fitz-hugh died about 1182. Following the generations down, Hugh or Hubert had a son Sir Hugh Jernegan of Stoneham-Jernegan; his grandson, Sir Peter Jernegan, through the division of his mother's estate, became heir to Somerleyton which became the capital seat of the family.
Child: William Jernegan born 1160, England, d. date unknown, England.

Generation 7
William Jernegan was born Abt. 1160 in England, and died date unknown in England. He married Isabelle Aspall.
Child: Hubert Jernegan, b. Abt. 1180, England, d. 1239, England.

Generation 8
Hubert Jernegan (son of William Jernegan and Isabelle Aspall) was born Abt. 1180 in England, and died 1239 in England. He married Margaret Harling.
Child: Hugh Jernegan, b. Abt. 1210, England, d. 1272, England.

Generation 9
Hugh Jernegan (son of Hubert Jernegan and Margaret Harling) was born Abt. 1210 in England, and died 1272 in England. He married Ellen Inglethorpe.
Child: Walter Jernegan, b. Abt. 1235, England, d. date unknown, England.

Generation 10
Walter Jernegan (son of Hugh Jernegan and Ellen Inglethorpe) was born Abt. 1235 in England, and died date unknown in England. He married Isabell Fitzosbert, daughter of Peter Fitzosbert.
Child: Peter Jernegan, b. Abt. 1270, England, d. date unknown, England.

He became Lord of Somerleyton Manor when he married the widow of Sir Henry de Walpole. It remained in the Jernegan family by descent from around 1310-1604.

Generation 11
Peter Jernegan (son of Walter Jernegan and Isabell Fitzosbert) was born Abt. 1270 in England, and died date unknown in England. He married Matilda de Herling.
Child: John Jernegan, b. Abt. 1313, England, d. 1376, England.

Peter Jernegan was the first generation to be born and to live at Somerleyton Hall in Suffolk England. The next nine generations after Peter (down through Thomas Jernegan who married Elizabeth Thompson) were also born and raised at Somerleyton Hall.

Following the generations down, Hugh or Hubert had a son Sir Hugh Jernegan of Stoneham-Jernegan; his grandson, Sir Peter Jernegan, through the division of his mother's estate., became heir to Somerleyton which became the capital seat of the family. From "An Essay Towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk" by Francis Blomefield printed in 1739 and collected out of ledger registers records, evidences, deeds, court-rolls and other authentic materials.

Generation 12
John Jernegan, Sir Abt. 1313, England, d. 1376, England married Agatha Shelton
Child: John Jernegan

Sir Peter Jernegan's grandson Sir John became master of Stoneham- Jernegans and it passed down from father to son.

Generation 13
John Jernegan Jr, Sir was born 1364 in England, and died 1401 in England, married Joan de Kelvedon daughter of Vis De Lou.
Child: Thomas Jernegan, b. Abt. 1385, England, d. Abt. 1450, England.

Generation 14
Thomas Jernegan, Sir was born Abt. 1385 in England, and died Abt. 1450 in England, married Joan Appleyard
Child: John Jernegan

Generation 15
John Jernigan, Sir was born Abt.1410 in England, and died 1474 in England, married Agnes or Jane Darrell
Child: John Jernigan
Generation 16
John Jernigan, Sir was born Abt. 1435 in England, and died 1503 in England, married Isabel Clifton
Child: Edward Jernigan

Generation 17
Edward Jernigan, Sir was born in Norfolk, England born in 1460 (d: 1515) married Margaret Bedingfield. Married second wife Mary Scrope 1472 - b: 1472 in Bolton, Yorkshire, England
Child: Henry Jerningham

Edward was an usher in the funeral of King Henry VII in 1509, and a
cupbearer to Queen Catherine of Aragon in her coronation. He was
granted manors Lowestoft, Gorleston, Lothing, Mutford. Edward Jernegan bought
a ship for 160 pounds stirling from Williamm Fizwilliam who had been in the
Battle of Calais, France, with Sir Robert Jernegan. He was Patron of
Somerleyton Rector in 1605.

Generation 18
Henry Jerningham, Sir died 1571 married Frances Baynham
Child: Henry Jernigan

Sir Henry Jerningham who died ca. 1571 was the son of Sir Edward Jernigan( d. 1515) and his wife Mary (Scroope). Sir Henry was the founder of the Cotessy branch of the Jernigans in the County of Norfolk, England (Betham, The Baronetage of England, 1801-1803, p. 232, table 33). Sir Henry used the Jerningham spelling of his name to distinguish himself from the Jernigans whom he disliked.
Note: cf. Historical Southern Families, Vol. IV, p. 121 et seq.
Research shows that Sir Henry Jerningham achieved fame (or notoriety) among the Jerningham generations by adhering to the cause of Queen Mary, daughter of Henry VIII of England. She succeded her brother Edward VI and ruled from 1553-1558. Known as "Bloody Mary" she was a fanatical Catholic. She married Phillip II of Spain, popularly considered the arch-enemy of England . Her attempt to restore England to the Church of Rome ended in alienating her people and reducing the country to a condition approaching anarchy. Sir Henry Jerningham was an ardent supporter, and he, with all his "tenantry", joined forces with her at Kenninghall in July, 1553. Sir Henry captured Yarmouth and rallied the county of Norfolk to her cause. He therefore stood high in the Queen's favor and became a member of the Privy Council.
When Queen Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558, Sir Henry was deprived of his high offices an d all his manors and other properties were confiscated.
Sir Henry Jerningham married Frances, dughter of Sir Edward Baynham, and by her had two sons and two daughters; Henry who married Eleanor Dacres; William Francis; Mary who married _______ ______Southwell; and Jeronima who married _Waldgrave. It has been stated that the children of Henry and Eleanor (Dacres) Jernigan were the first emigrants to the Virginia Colony, that i s, the first of the Jerninghams in America. These sons were Thomas of Norwich, Norfolk Co., E ngland and George who married a Miss Philpot of Somerton, Norfolk County.
Note: Judge B.B. Winbourne, in Colonial and State Political History of Hertford Co., N.C. stat es: "Three brothers came to Virginia". Howeverit is possible that Thomas's son John was born in England and accompanied his parents to Virginia which would explain the above error.
Records of the family of Jerningham (later to be spelled Jernegan and Jernigan) are found i n the marriage bonds of Norfolk County, England. The dates given are not marriage records, bu t the year in which the heir proved his in heritance before the County Court.
There were two, perhaps more, manors or "seats" of the Jerninghams. One was at Somerton, o n the cost of Norfolk, about ten miles north of Great Yarmouth. It was a parish at one time , but the church has now fallen into decay. (Note: Somerleyton in Suffolk Co., England, refer red to in Boddie's Historical Southern Families, Vol. iv, p. 121, is not the same place as Somerton, Norfolk.)

Research shows that Sir Henry Jerningham achieved fame (or notoriety) among the Jerningham generations by adhering to the cause of Queen Mary, daughter of Henry VII, of England. She succeeded her brother Edward VI and ruled from 1553-58. Known as "Bloody Mary" she was a fanatical Catholic. She married Philip II of Spain, popularly considered the arch-enemy of England. Her attempt to restore England to the Church ofRome ended in alienating her people and reducing the country to a condition approaching anarchy. Sir Henry Jerningham was an ardent supporter , and he sent all his "tenantry", joined forces with her at Kenninghall in July, 1553. Sir Henry captured Yarmouth and rallied the county of Norfolk to her cause. He therefore stood high in the queen's favor and became a member of the Privy Council.
When Queen Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558, Sir Henry was deprived of his high offices and all his manors and other properties were confiscated.

Generation 19
Henry Jernigan was born in Contessy Hall, Norfolk, England and married Eleanor Dacres, daughter of WILLIAM DACRE and ELIZABETH
Child: Henry Jerningham

Generation 20
First to Go to America
Thomas Jernigan was born 1614 in Somerleyton-in-Suffolk, England and died around 1700 in Somerton, Nansemond Co. Virginia married Elizabeth Thompson (1633-1665)
He changed his name back to the original spelling

Thomas Jernigan the immigrant was born not later than 1643 and was living in 1704. He was termed "Master" in a grant to him of 250 acres in the"county of Nanzemund" at a place called Somerton on May 16, 1668. At thesession of the General Assembly in Virginia, which met in Novem ber, 1682,he was awarded payments in tobacco assessed against Nansemond County"for carrying p ublique letters into Carolina". In 1685, as ThomasJernigan Sr., he patented an addition 33 0 acres "at Somerton in the upper parish of Nansemond". On the Nansemond Quit Rent Roll of 17 04 he waslisted as holding 165 acres; probably by this time he had given all his lands with the exception of his manor plantation to his son and heir.

Generation 21
Henry Jernigan 1685 - 1736 d: May 09, 1736 in Bertie County, North Carolina b: 1685 .................................................... +Pheobe Blackman 1687 - Aft. 1736 m: WFT Est. 1716-1734 d: Aft. 1736 in Bertie County, North Carolina b: 1687

Will 1736 Bertie County, LGB-4/#40
HENERY JERNIGAN 9 May 1736 Aug Ct 1736
of Bertie Precinct, planter, "...being very sick and weak in body..."Wife--150 acres at Cash i that I bought of Henery Averet and William Jones, also bed, quilt and rug. Son HENERY JERNIGIN-- plantation of 80acres where he now lives adj. Joseph Blackman and John Blackman, also Negro Rose, etc. Son JACOB JERNIGIN--my plantation where I now live, containing 80 acres, adj . Joseph Blackman and Jacob Tuder in the PineIsland, but I reserve the use of half of said l and for my wife for her lifetime. Son JACOB--Negro Hannah, calico quilt, horse I bought of THO MAS BUNTIN, etc., also 100 acres adj. my wife's land. Daughter ANNJONES--Negro Jude, sheep , etc. Son JESSE JARNIGIN--the remaining part of my land containing 80 acres. Negroes Arnol d and Sue, etc. Son DEMPSIEJARNIGIN--200 acre plantation I bought of Thomas Watson, Negro Charles, bed bottles, horse tha runs at Hoskey (Horkey?), etc. I give Henery Dubbons his freedom on the provision he discharges me a suit a clothes, also give him 100 acres, being part o f a tract at Cashi, etc. Wife PHEBE--saddlebags and ll moveable estate. My cattle and sheep are to be divided between my wife and my sons JESSE AND DEMPSIE when JESSE is sixteen. I give my wife the use of Negro Robin for four years and then he shall return to my son JACOB. So n HENERY-- all lands on Summerton Creek on the north side in Virginia
wit. Theophilus Williams, JOHN JERNIGAN, BENNET BLACKMAN.

Generation 22
Henry Jernigan - Born 1710 to 1783 married Ann (Will page 248)

Generation 23
Lewis Jernigan - Born 1742 to 1818

Generation 24
Kedar Jernigan - Born 1768 to 1844 married Celia Blackman (Letter page 11)

Generation 25
Joseph Jernigan - Born 1800 married Colin Adams

Generation 26
Cadar Robert Jernigan - Born 1838 married Lucinda Jackson

Generation 27
Lewis Martin Jernigan - Born 1872 to 1914 married Ella Nora Price

Generation 28
Alex Raiford Jernigan - Born Jan 18, 1895 married Sallie Capps

Generation 29
Jerry Wayne Jernigan - Born Nov 22, 1935 married Joan Ruth Gattus Born June 4, 1935

Generation 30
Jerry Jay Jernigan, Sr (Born Jan 3, 1965) married Danielle Elizabeth Collier (Born 6-22-67)

Generation 31
Jerry Jay Jernigan, Jr. (Born Jun 11, 2004)

From Viking warrior to English king -
Canute (Knud) The Great

Son of Sweyn, Canute became undisputed King of England in 1016, and his rivals (Ethelred's surviving sons and Edmund's son) fled abroad. In 1018, the last Danegeld of 82,500 pounds was paid to Canute. Ruthless but capable, Canute consolidated his position by marrying Ethelred's widow Emma (Canute's first English partner - the Church did not recognise her as his wife - was set aside, later appointed regent of Norway). During his reign, Canute also became King of Denmark and Norway; his inheritance and formidable personality combined to make him overlord of a huge northern empire.

During his inevitable absences in Scandinavia, Canute used powerful English and Danish earls to assist in England's government - English law and methods of government remained unchanged.
A second-generation Christian for reasons of politics as well as faith, Canute went on pilgrimage to Rome in 1027-8. (It was allegedly Christian humility which made him reject his courtiers' flattery by demonstrating that even he could not stop the waves; later hostile chroniclers were to claim it showed madness.)

Canute was buried at Winchester. Given that there was no political or governmental unity within his empire, it failed to survive owing to discord between his sons by two different queens - Harold Harefoot (reigned 1035-40) and Harthacnut (reigned 1040-42) - and the factions led by the semi-independent Earls of Northumbria, Mercia and Wessex.

Canute the politician
"Let all men know how empty and worthless is the power of kings. For there is none worthy of the name but God, whom heaven, earth and sea obey".
So spoke King Canute the Great, the legend says, seated on his throne on the seashore, waves lapping round his feet. Canute had learned that his flattering courtiers claimed he was "So great, he could command the tides of the sea to go back". Now Canute was not only a religious man, but also a clever politician. He knew his limitations - even if his courtiers did not - so he had his throne carried to the seashore and sat on it as the tide came in, commanding the waves to advance no further. When they didn't, he had made his point that, though the deeds of kings might appear 'great' in the minds of men, they were as nothing in the face of God's power.
Canute the Viking
Who was this man, who started his adult life as a Viking warrior and went on to become the ruler of an empire which, at its height, included England, Denmark, Norway and part of Sweden?
Canute (who is known as Knud in Denmark and Knut in Norway) was the son of Svein Forkbeard Canute's grandfather was Harald Bluetooth and his great-grandfather was King Gorm.
In England, in the year 1000, the Saxon King Aethelred plundered the Isle of Man and parts of The Danelaw, to try to crush the independently-minded Scandinavians living there. Aethelred always feared a resurgence of Viking power in England. In 1002 he married Emma, sister of Duke Richard of Normandy. This marriage was probably a 'political' one. But Aethelred's fear of the Scandinavians caused him to make a serious mistake. In the year of his marriage to Emma, perhaps feeling more secure in his new links with the Norman ruling dynasty, he ordered the massacre of all 'Danish' men in England. Svein Forkbeard's sister and his brother-in-law, Pallig, were amongst those killed and this brought Svein to England to avenge their deaths. Svein raided south and east England throughout the years 1003 and 1004, but took his army back to Denmark in 1005 when they could no longer support themselves because of a great famine in England.
Svein carried out many more raids for several years after this, extracting vast amounts of silver as 'Danegeld'. In 1013 he returned with his son Canute, for a different purpose. This time he intended to conquer England. Though he landed his forces in southern England, he made The Danelaw his first objective, probably recognising that, being 'Scandinavian' in character, this province would accept him without too much resistance. He went on to conquer the rest of the country and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that "...all the nation regarded him as full king". Aethelred fled to Normandy.
Svein, though, died the next year and Aethelred saw a chance to regain his kingdom. He returned from Normandy and managed to expel Svein's army, now under Canute's leadership.
Canute the king
In 1016 Canute returned and was victorious at the Battle of Ashingdon (Ashingdown) over Edmund 'Ironside', Aethelred's eldest son and successor. Canute and Edmund drew up the Treaty of Olney, which allotted The Danelaw and the English midlands to Canute, while Edmund retained control of southern England. This was almost a repeat of what had happened between King Alfred the Great of Wessex and the Vikings in the ninth century. Edmund died shortly after this treaty and so Canute found himself the first Viking king of all England.
In 1017 Canute married Aethelred's widow, Emma. But her two sons by her first marriage remained in Normandy (which was to have far-reaching consequences for England later). Emma had two children by Canute, Harthacnut and Gunhild. Canute was a Christian and very religious-minded. However, this did not stop him having an English mistress, Aelfgifu, who bore him two sons, Harald and Svein
A VIiking empire emerges
Canute's brother, Harald, King of Denmark, died in 1018 and Canute went to Denmark to secure his hold over that realm. Two years later, Canute started to lay claim to Norway, eventually capturing it and putting his son Svein and his mistress Aelfgifu to govern it. Scotland also submitted to Canute and, by the late 1020s, Canute was able to claim to be 'king of all England, and of Denmark, of the Norwegians, and part of the Swedes'. Canute was anxious to consolidate political unity in England and, as part of his drive towards this, he razed some of the burghs which had been created to defend southern England against The Danelaw Vikings, and vice versa. It is thought that defensive walls and ditches at Cricklade, Lydford, South Cadbury and Wareham were destroyed as part of this move.
Canute's achievements
Most people think of Canute in connection with the story about him commanding the tide to halt. But he should be remembered for more than this. He was perhaps the first king to successfully rule over a truly united realm of England, free from internal and external strife and unrest. Because he also ruled the Viking homelands, he was able to protect England against attacks, maintaining twenty years of badly-needed peace during which trade, Anglo-Scandinavian art and Christianity were able to flourish. Canute had great respect for the old English laws, to which he brought a keen sense of justice and a regard for individual rights. As part of his promotion of himself as an 'English' king, he did penance for the wrongdoings of his Viking forefathers, building churches and making many generous gifts to others.
The passing of Canute and the Viking empire
Canute died in 1035, a relatively young man by today's measure, aged about forty. He was buried in Winchester, the former capital of the Saxon kingdom of Wessex and a town where he was often in residence.
Canute's sons, unfortunately, were not made of the same stuff as their father so, on his death, the Anglo-Scandinavian empire he had acquired began to break up. Aelfgifu's son, Harald, became king of England but died in 1040. Harthacnut then ruled for only two years before he, too, died, leaving behind little to remember him by other than the huge taxes he imposed. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle said of him, "He did nothing worthy of a king as long as he ruled".
None of Canute's children produced any heirs and it was one of Emma's sons by Aethelred, Edward (later to be known as 'the Confessor'), who returned from Normandy to ascend to the English throne in 1042.

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