THE ANCESTRY OF WINNIFRED (GEORGE) GILLIAM HUMAN
by Charles M. Ward, Jr.
Since my first postings to the Human GenForum regarding Winnifred (George) Gilliam Human (b.ca 1755; alive, 1840), much new information has come to my attention. Enough is now known to outline Winnifred's ancestry and once and for all demonstrate she was not "a full-blooded Cherokee" as some have erroneously claimed. I would recommend that any interested researchers consult my prior postings to the Human GenForum before proceeding further, in order to obtain some background information regarding this matter.
Winnifred (George) Gilliam Human is identified as a sister of Solomon George (1757-1830), of Knox Co., TN by her grandson, James M. Murphy, in an 1891 account of the Gilliam family. James M. Murphy was old enough to have known both his grandmother and Solomon George. Solomon George was close to the children of his sister, Winnifred, by her first husband, Thomas Gilliam. The obituary of Solomon George states that he died in the household of Thomas Frazier, who was the husband of a Gilliam niece.
A letter composed by W.R. Pope and sent to a member of the George family, dated 25 Jun 1949, discusses and outlines the ancestry of Solomon George (1757-1830), of Knox Co., TN. Pope, a descendant of the Lancaster Co., VA Carter family, discusses the George family and how it connects to the Carters. In so doing, he outlines the ancestry of Solomon George. It should be noted that the letter refers to pertinent primary sources, including the George family Bible published in 1752, family letters, and other family records. Attempts are ongoing to locate the present-day whereabouts of these primary sources.
Winnifred George was born about 1755 in Lancaster Co., VA. She was the daughter of William George (b.1724; d. 1784/7) and his wife, Winifred George. William George left Lancaster County about 1765-1769 and eventually settled in what is now Fincastle, Botetourt Co., VA. He is recorded in a 1784 tax list residing near Fincastle. His widow, Winifred, is found in the 1787 tax list for Botetourt County, indicating William George had died sometime between the recording of the 1784 tax list and the 1787 tax list. No probate record has been found for him. The Pope letter states that William George (d.1784/7) was killed by Indians. This places his daughter, Winnifred (George) Gilliam Human, in the sad position of having her father, first husband, and one of her sons killed by Indians. William George's widow, Winifred George, accompanied family members to Knox Co., TN and died in 1809.
(Note that the given name of Winifred George, wife of William George, is spelled with one "n." The given name of their daughter, Winnifred, is commonly spelled with two.)
William George (b.1724) was the eldest son of Thomas George (1701-1748), of Lancaster Co., VA and his wife, Rebecca George. Thomas George led an uneventful life in Lancaster County and his widow, Rebecca George, served as administrator of his estate in Lancaster County.
Thomas George (1701-1748) was the second son of William George (d.1710), of Lancaster Co., VA and his wife, Elizabeth Carter (b.1680/1), daughter of Thomas and Katherine (Dale) Carter. William George (d.1710) was in turn the son of Nicholas George and grandson of Nicholas George, the immigrant founder of this branch of the George family in colonial Virginia. Current research places the first Nicholas George as a native of Writtle, County Essex, England. William George and both Nicholas Georges all left wills in Lancaster Co., VA.
I again cite the W. R. Pope letter with its primary source references as well as various Lancaster and Botetourt Co., VA records as proof of the above.
Needless to say, not a single Cherokee figures in the ancestry of Winnifred (George) Gilliam Human. Yet again, we are drawn to the inescapable conclusion that any Cherokee blood came into the Human family through Basil Human, Jr. the second husband of Winnifred, or through some other individual who married into the Human family in a later generation. When the information given in this posting is taken into consideration with the information presented in previous postings to the Human GenForum regarding Winnifred (George) Gilliam Human, it provides a much more clear, factual picture of this lady. It also provides some very strong clues as to the origins of the Human family, more specifically for Basil Human, Sr.
As discussed in previous postings, Basil Human, Sr. is identified as a "mulatto" in Georgia tax records in the 1790s. During this period, the term was applied to anyone with some degree of non-white ancestry. It is possible the Humans had Cherokee ancestry, but this appears debatable. The Humans resided in Maryland before locating in Georgia. Maryland was not a haven of the Cherokees. Therefore, the liklihood of a Cherokee connection seems slim. Close proximity to the sea could have brought the family into contact with other non-white ethnic groups. It is interesting to note that a Basil Human is found in the 1790 Census in Rhode Island, listed as a "free negro." Physical descriptions and early tintypes of Human family members, possessing black hair, black eyes, and dark skin certainly seem to indicate a strong possibility that the "mulatto" designation for the Humans was in reference to an African-American connection. However, as I am not a descendant of the Human family, I will leave that avenue of research to the descendants of the Human family to investigate more fully.
(A great-great-great-great-great grandson of Winnifred (George) Gilliam Human by her first husband, Thomas Gilliam.)
Copyright @2001 Charles M. Ward, Jr.
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