The State Archives has this about the Militia Districts.
"The active, organized Georgia Militia, in the sense that it existed during the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812 and the various Indian uprisings until 1840, is today practically extinct. Its place was taken by the Volunteer organizations, both before and after the War Between the States, and later by the National Guard when it was organized in 1916. In fact, although detailed provisions for the government of the organized Georgia Militia were contained in the 1863 Code, later Codes dropped all but a few references to it although containing equivalent provisions relating to the Volunteers. The 1910 Code omitted all references to the Militia as a military force. It is true that the Act of Aug. 21, 1916 (Chap 86-2 of the 1933 Code) and the Act of Feb. 19, 1951 (Chap. 86-1 of the 1933 Code Supplement ) contain references to the unorganized Militia, but it is obvious that they are included only to provide for a reservoir of manpower who could be made subject to the draft and duty in the defense of the State in emergencies of the gravest nature. Technically, every citizen of the State, between the ages of 17 and 45, who is not a member of the National Guard or other organized military force, is today a member of the unorganized Georgia Militia in the Militia District in which he resides.
But although the organized Georgia Militia is dead, the Georgia Militia Districts are very much alive and enter daily into the activities of all of our citizens in anything connected with (1) the territorial jurisdiction of Justice of the Peace Courts; (2) the boundaries of election districts; (3) the return of property for taxation; (4) stock and fence laws; (5) the conveyancing of land in headright Counties; and (6) in all other circumstances specifically referred to in the laws of the Senate as presently codified."
Many of the censuses used the Militia Districts to note where someone lived. It was a way for the government to know which men were eligible for service should the need arise. I hope this helps.
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