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Appleton Royal ancestry
Posted by: Scott Williams (ID *****3064) Date: April 28, 2003 at 03:34:04
  of 998

This is a 39-generation ahnentafel for Samuel Appleton who married Hannah Paine, the progenitor of many Appleton's in America. All generations are referenced; references in brackets follow the fact stated. The bibliography is found at the end of the file, which will be included with the last posting of this ancestry.

For those not used to medieval naming conventions, the surnames beginning with "DE" or "D'" are Latin for "OF". Many surnames were derived from localities, with the DE being dropped as time went on. I have followed Welch conventions of patronymics: AB denotes "son of", FERCH denotes "daughter of". You may have encountered alternative spellings of many names mentioned here, and I have used the "Alias" field in my program to account for most of the ones I've seen. Where you see in a reference something such as "line 45-20" it is from the F.L. Weis books (in case anyone is not familiar with them). It is set up by family lines in sequence, hence the format. For many of the generations shown here I have additional descendants, but the ahnentafel format does not permit this.

Seventh Generation
----------------------------------------

64 John APPLETON. Residence: Great Waldingfield, Suffolk, England.[4] John married Alice MALCHIER. They had the following children:
       32       i.       Thomas (-1507)
              ii.       John
              iii.       Thomas

65 Alice MALCHIER.

66 Robert CRANE. Residence: Little Stonham, England.[4] Child:
       33       i.       Margaret (-1504)

90 Otewell WORSLEY. Born abt 1410. Otewell died on 24 Mar 1470, he was 60.[22] Occupation: Lieutenant of the Castle of Calais.[23] Otewell married Rose FERCH EDWARD. They had one child:
       45       i.       Margaret (-1515)

91 Rose FERCH EDWARD.

96 John EVERARD. Born abt 1430.[10] Residence: Succeeded to estates in Mashbury, and had an estate called "Newarks" in the adjoining parish of Good Easter, co. Essex, England.[24] abt 1455 when John was 25, he married Catherine.

They had the following children:
       48       i.       Thomas (~1460-1529)
              ii.       Elizabeth
              iii.       Joane
              iv.       daughter

97 Catherine.


Eighth Generation
----------------------------------------

128 John APPLETON. John died in 1481.[4] Buried in Waldingfield, Co. Suffolk, England. John married Margaret WELLINGE. They had one child:
       64       i.       John

129 Margaret WELLINGE. Margaret died in 1468.[4]

130 Thomas MALCHIER. Thomas married Amy. They had one child:
       65       i.       Alice

131 Amy.

182 Edward AB DAFFYD. Edward died in 1448.[25] Alias/AKA: Trevor.[25] Edward married Angharad PULESTON. They had one child:
       91       i.       Rose

183 Angharad PULESTON.

192 William EVERARD. Residence: Mashbury, co. Essex, England.[10] abt 1430 William married Isabel BEDELL.[24] They had one child:
       96       i.       John (~1430-)

193 Isabel BEDELL.


Ninth Generation
----------------------------------------

256 John APPLETON. John died aft 1459.[26] Residence: Little Waldingfield, Suffolk, England.[4] Child:
       128       i.       John (-1481)

258 Richard WELLINGE.

Child:
       129       i.       Margaret (-1468)

366 Robert PULESTON. Born abt 1358.[27] Robert died aft 1399, he was 41.[28] Residence: Emral, Co. Flint, Wales.[28] Robert married Lowry FERCH GRUFFYDD FYCHAN. They had one child:
       183       i.       Angharad

367 Lowry FERCH GRUFFYDD FYCHAN.

384 William EVERARD. Born abt 1375. Residence: Mashbury, co. Essex, England.[10]

Research: Everard is a very old family name in England, particularly in the counties of Essex and Suffolk. Here there were several lines of armigerous landed gentry of the name during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, and several pedigrees of the name, with arms, appear in the Visitations of Essex in 1558, 1612, and 1634, and of Suffolk in 1561, 1577, and 1612. In 1629 Sir Richard Everard, the head of the family in Essex, was created a baronet, an honour which became extinct in 1745 on the death s.p. of his descendant Sir Hugh Evererd, 6th Baronet.

The earliest Everard mentioned in the Essex visitation pedigrees of the family is a Ralph Everard, said to have lived during parts of the reigns of Henry III and Edward I. He is given as father of Walter Everard, claimed to have been living during portions of the reigns of Edward II and Edward III. The latter is claimed in these visitation pedigrees to have been father of William Everard who married Isabel Bedell; as this marriage did not take place until about 1430, it is evident that there must have been at least 3 generations omitted between this Walter and this William, if the latter was a descendant of Walter.[24]

Children:
       192       i.       William
              ii.       John


Tenth Generation
----------------------------------------

512 John APPLETON. John died in 1414 in Great Waldingfield, Co. Suffolk, England.[4] Residence: Waldingfield Magna (a.k.a. Great Waldingfield), co. Suffolk, England.[26] Alias/AKA: Apulton.[4] Child:
       256       i.       John (->1459)

734 Gruffydd Fychan AB GRUFFYDD.

Gruffydd Fychan married Elen ferch Thomas AB LLYWELYN.

They had the following children:
       367       i.       Lowry
              ii.       Owain

735 Elen ferch Thomas AB LLYWELYN.


Eleventh Generation
----------------------------------------

1468 Gruffydd DE RHUDDALLT. Born on 23 Nov 1298 in Wales.[28],[29] Residence: Glyndyfrdwy in Powys Fadog, Wales.[28] On 8 Jul 1304 when Gruffydd was 5, he married Elizabeth LE STRANGE.[28],[29] They had one child:
       734       i.       Gruffydd Fychan

1469 Elizabeth LE STRANGE. Born in 1298.[29] Elizabeth died aft 1320, she was 22.[28]

1470 Thomas AB LLYWELYN.

Child:
       735       i.       Elen ferch Thomas


Twelfth Generation
----------------------------------------

2938 John LE STRANGE 1st Lord Strange. Born abt 1253.[28],[30] aged 22 at his father's death. John died bef 8 Aug 1309, he was 56.[28] Occupation: 1st Lord Strange of Knockyn.[31] John married Maud DE DEYVILLE.

They had one child:
       1469       i.       Elizabeth (1298->1320)

2939 Maud DE DEYVILLE. Alias/AKA: de Walton.[30]


Thirteenth Generation
----------------------------------------

5876 John LE STRANGE 4th Lord Strange. John died bef 26 Feb 1276.[32],[33] bef 1254 John married Joan DE SOMERY.[34] They had the following children:
       2938       i.       John (~1253-<1309)
              ii.       Hawise

5877 Joan DE SOMERY. Joan died in 1282.[32]


14th Generation
----------------------------------------

11752 John LE STRANGE. John died bef 1269.[35] Occupation: Lord Strange of Knockyn.[36] John married Lucy DE TREGOZ. They had the following children:
       5876       i.       John (-<1276)
              ii.       Robert

11753 Lucy DE TREGOZ.

11754 Roger DE SOMERY. Born in Dudley, Warwick, England. Roger died bef 26 Aug 1273.[37],[38] Roger married Nichole D'AUBIGNY. They had the following children:
              i.       Margaret (->1293)
       5877       ii.       Joan (-1282)

11755 Nichole D'AUBIGNY. Nichole died bef 1254.[39]


15th Generation
----------------------------------------

23506 Robert DE TREGOZ. Robert died in 1214.[40] Robert married Sibyl DE EWYAS. They had the following children:
       11753       i.       Lucy
              ii.       Robert (-1265)

23507 Sibyl DE EWYAS. Sibyl died in 1236.[41]

23508 John DE SOMERY. John married Hawise DE PAYNELL. They had one child:
       11754       i.       Roger (-<1273)

23509 Hawise DE PAYNELL.

23510 William D'AUBIGNY Earl of Arundel. William died on 1 Feb 1221 in Caianello, Lazio, Italy.[42] died during crusade. Buried in Wymondham Abbey, Norfolk, England.[42] Occupation: named in Magna Charta, 1215.[42] William married Mabel DE CHESTER. They had the following children:
       11755       i.       Nichole (-<1254)
              ii.       Cicely
              iii.       Maud (-~1242)
              iv.       Isabella (~1190-<1240)

23511 Mabel DE CHESTER.


16th Generation
----------------------------------------

47014 Robert DE EWYAS Lord of Ewyas Harold. Residence: Ewyas Harold, co. Hereford, England. Robert married Pernel. They had one child:
       23507       i.       Sibyl (-1236)

47015 Pernel. Alias/AKA: Petronilla.[43]

47020 William D'AUBIGNY Earl of Arundel. William died on 24 Dec 1193.[44] William married Maud DE ST. HILARY. They had one child:
       23510       i.       William (-1221)

47021 Maud DE ST. HILARY. Born ca 1132 in Dalling, Norfolk, England. Maud died in Norfolk, England in 1195, she was 63.

47022 Hugh DE KEVELIOC Earl of Chester. Born in 1147 in Kevelioc, co. Monmouth, Wales.[45] Hugh died in Leeke, co. Stafford, England in 1181, he was 34. Hugh married Bertrade D'EVREUX.

They had the following children:
              i.       Hawise (1180-<1243)
       23511       ii.       Mabel
              iii.       Agnes (-1247)
              iv.       Randolph (-1232)
              v.       Matilda (Maud) (-1233)

47023 Bertrade D'EVREUX.


17th Generation
----------------------------------------

94028 Robert DE EWYAS. Robert died aft 1147.[46] Child:
       47014       i.       Robert

94040 William D'AUBIGNY 1st Earl of Arundel. William died on 12 Oct 1176.[47] In 1138 William married Adeliza of Louvain.[47] They had the following children:
       47020       i.       William (-1193)
              ii.       Ralph
              iii.       Henry
              iv.       Geoffrey
              v.       Alice
              vi.       Olivia
              vii.       Agatha

94041 Adeliza of Louvain. Born abt 1103 in Louvain, Belgium. aged 48 years at her death. Adeliza died in Flanders, France on 23 Apr 1151, she was 48.[44] Buried in Afflighem, Flanders, France. 94042 James DE ST. HILARY. James died abt 1154.[44] Residence: Field Dalling, Norfolk, England.[44] James married Aveline. They had one child:
       47021       i.       Maud (ca1132-1195)

94043 Aveline.

94044 Ranulph DE GERNON. Born abt 1100.[48] Ranulph died on 16 Dec 1153, he was 53. Buried in St. Werburg's, co. Chester, england.[49] Ranulph married Maud DE CAEN. They had one child:
       47022       i.       Hugh (1147-1181)

94045 Maud DE CAEN. Maud died on 29 Jul 1189.[49]

94046 Simon DE MONTFORT Count of Evreux.

Child:
       47023       i.       Bertrade


18th Generation
----------------------------------------

188056 Harold DE EWYAS Lord of Sudeley. Harold died aft 1115.[50] Occupation: Lord of Sudeley and Ewyas Harold. Child:
       94028       i.       Robert (->1147)

188082 Duke of Louvaine Godfrey DE BRABANT I "The Bearded". Godfrey died on 25 Jan 1139.[51] abt 1100 Godfrey married Ida DE NAMUR.[52] They had the following children:
       94041       i.       Adeliza (~1103-1151)
              ii.       Godfrey (-1143)
              iii.       Ida

188083 Ida DE NAMUR. Ida died bef 1122.[53],[54]

188088 Ranulph LE MESCHIN Earl of Chester. Ranulph died abt 1129.[55],[56] Buried in St. Werburg's, co. Chester, England. Occupation: Lord of Cumberland; Vicomte of Bayeux in Normandy; Earl of Chester in 1120, foll. the death of his first cousin, Hugh d'Avranches; in 1124 commander of the Royal Forces in Normandy. abt 1098 Ranulph married Lucy. They had the following children:
              i.       Adeliza
       94044       ii.       Ranulph (~1100-1153)

188089 Lucy.

188090 Robert FITZHENRY 1st Earl of Gloucester. Robert died on 31 Oct 1147.[57],[58] Alias/AKA: Fitzroy, de Caen. Robert married Mabel FITZHAMON. They had the following children:
              i.       Mabel
       94045       ii.       Maud (-1189)
              iii.       William (-1183)

188091 Mabel FITZHAMON. Alias/AKA: Maud.


19th Generation
----------------------------------------

376112 Ralph DE SUDELEY Earl of Hereford. Ralph died on 21 Dec 1057.[59],[60] Residence: Sudeley and Toddington, co. Gloucester; Chilvers Coton, co. Warwick, England.[60] Ralph married Getha. They had one child:
       188056       i.       Harold (->1115)

376113 Getha.

376164 Count of Lorraine Henry DE BRABANT II.[61] Born abt 1021.[62] Henry died in 1078, he was 57. Occupation: Count of Lorraine and Louvain. Henry married Adelaide DE ORLAMUNDA. They had the following children:
       188082       i.       Godfrey (-1139)
              ii.       Ida

376165 Adelaide DE ORLAMUNDA. Adelaide died aft 1086.[62]

376166 Otto DE CHINY II, Count of Chiny. Otto died bef 1131.[63] Otto married Adelaide DE NAMUR. They had one child:
       188083       i.       Ida (-<1122)

376167 Adelaide DE NAMUR. Born in 1068. Adelaide died in 1124, she was 56.[63]

376176 Ranulph DE BESSIN Viscount of Bayeux. Ranulph died aft Apr 1089.[64] Ranulph married Margaret LE GOZ. They had one child:
       188088       i.       Ranulph (-~1129)

376177 Margaret LE GOZ.

376180 King of England Henry BEAUCLERC I.[65],[66],[67] Born abt 1068 in Selby, York, England. Henry died in Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France on 2 Dec 1136, he was 68. A surfeit of lampreys (none too fresh) caused his death of promanine poisoning. Buried in Reading Abbey, England. Occupation: King of England 1100-1135.[51] By an unknown concubine he had the following children:
              i.       Sybilla
       188090       ii.       Robert (-1147)
              iii.       Elizabeth

376181 unknown concubine. Alias/AKA: possibly Sybil Corbet.[68]

376182 Robert FITZHAMON Lord of Creully. Robert died in 1107.[58] Occupation: Lord of Creully in Calvados.[69] Robert married Sybil DE MONTGOMERY. They had one child:
       188091       i.       Mabel

376183 Sybil DE MONTGOMERY.


20th Generation
----------------------------------------

752224 Count of Mantes & Vexin, Drogo (Drew) of Dreux. Drogo (Drew) died in 1035.[59] Drogo (Drew) married Godgifu (Gofa). They had the following children:
       376112       i.       Ralph (-1057)
              ii.       Walter (-~1064)
              iii.       Fulk (-1058)

752225 Godgifu (Gofa). Godgifu (Gofa) died bef 1049.[59]

752328 Lambert DE LOUVAIN II, Count of Brabant.[61] Born ca 0991.[70] Lambert died aft 21 Sep 1062, he was 71.[71] Lambert married Oda of Lower Lorraine. They had one child:
       376164       i.       Henry (~1021-1078)

752329 Oda of Lower Lorraine.

752330 Count Eberhard DE ORLAMUNDA.[62] Child:
       376165       i.       Adelaide (->1086)

752332 Arnold DE CHINY II, Count of Chiny. Arnold died in 1106.[63] Arnold married Adela DE MONTDIDIER.

They had one child:
       376166       i.       Otto (-<1131)

752333 Adela DE MONTDIDIER.

752352 Ranulph DE BESSIN Viscount of Bessin. Ranulph married Alice DE NORMANDY. They had one child:
       376176       i.       Ranulph (->1089)

752353 Alice DE NORMANDY.

752354 Richard LE GOZ Viscount d'Avranches. Richard married Emma. They had the following children:
       376177       i.       Margaret
              ii.       Hugh (-1101)

752355 Emma.

752360 King of England William DE NORMANDY "The Conquerer".[72] Born in 1027/28 in Falaise, Normandy, France.[73] William died in Priory of St. Gervais, Rouen, France on 8/9 Sep 1087, he was 60.[74] died of a burst bowel at age 59. While jumping a trench on horseback, his stomach was forced onto the pommel. Buried in Abbey of St. Stephen, Caen, France.[75] Occupation: Duke of Normandy, King of England.

Research: Born around 1028, William was the illegitimate son of Duke Robert I of Normandy, and Herleve (also known as Arlette), daughter of a tanner in Falaise. Known as 'William the Bastard' to his contemporaries, his illegitimacy shaped his career when he was young. On his father's death in 1035, William was recognised by his family as the heir - an exception to the general rule that illegitimacy barred succession. His great uncle looked after the Duchy during William's minority, and his overlord, King Henry I of France, knighted him at the age of 15.

From 1047 onwards, William successfully dealt with rebellion inside Normandy involving his kinsmen and threats from neighbouring nobles, including attempted invasions by his former ally King Henry I of France in 1054 (the French forces were defeated at the Battle of Mortemer) and 1057. William's military successes and reputation helped him to negotiate his marriage to Mathilda, daughter of Count Baldwin V of Flanders. At the time of his invasion of England, William was a very experienced and ruthless military commander, ruler and administrator who had unified Normandy and inspired fear and respect outside his duchy.

William's claim to the English throne was based on his assertion that, in 1051, Edward the Confessor had promised him the throne (he was a distant cousin) and that Harold II - having sworn in 1064 to uphold William's right to succeed to that throne - was therefore a usurper. Furthermore, William had the support of Emperor Henry IV and papal approval. William took seven months to prepare his invasion force, using some 600 transport ships to carry around 7,000 men (including 2,000-3,000 cavalry) across the Channel. On 28 September 1066, with a favourable wind, William landed unopposed at Pevensey and, within a few days, raised fortifications at Hastings. Having defeated an earlier invasion by the King of Norway at the Battle of Stamford Bridge near York in late September, Harold undertook a forced march south, covering 250 miles in some nine days to meet the new threat, gathering inexperienced reinforcements to replenish his exhausted veterans as he marched.

At the Battle of Senlac (near Hastings) on 14 October, Harold's weary and under-strength army faced William's cavalry (part of the forces brought across the Channel) supported by archers. Despite their exhaustion, Harold's troops were equal in number (they included the best infantry in Europe equipped with their terrible two-handled battle axes) and they had the battlefield advantage of being based on a ridge above the Norman positions.

The first uphill assaults by the Normans failed and a rumour spread that William had been killed; William rode among the ranks raising his helmet to show he was still alive. The battle was close-fought: a chronicler described the Norman counter-attacks and the Saxon defence as 'one side attacking with all mobility, the other withstanding as though rooted to the soil'. Three of William's horses were killed under him.

William skilfully co-ordinated his archers and cavalry, both of which the English forces lacked. During a Norman assault, Harold was killed - hit by an arrow and then mowed down by the sword of a mounted knight. Two of his brothers were also killed. The demoralised English forces fled. (In 1070, as penance, William had an abbey built on the site of the battle, with the high altar occupying the spot where Harold fell. The ruins of Battle Abbey, and the town of Battle, which grew up around it, remain.)

William was crowned on Christmas Day 1066 in Westminster Abbey. Three months later, he was confident enough to return to Normandy leaving two joint regents (one of whom was his half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, who was later to commission the Bayeux Tapestry) behind to administer the kingdom. However, it took William six years to consolidate his conquest, and even then he had to face constant plotting and fighting on both sides of the Channel. In 1068, Harold's sons raided the south-west coast of England (dealt with by William's local commanders), and there were uprisings in the Welsh Marches, Devon and Cornwall. William appointed earls who, in Wales and in all parts of the kingdom, undertook to guard the threatened frontiers and maintain internal security in return for land.

In 1069, the Danes, in alliance with Prince Edgar the Aetheling (Ethelred's great-grandson) and other English nobles, invaded the north and took York. Taking personal charge, and pausing only to deal with the rising at Stafford, William drove the Danes back to their ships on the Humber. In a harsh campaign lasting into 1070, William systematically devastated Mercia and Northumbria to deprive the Danes of their supplies and prevent recovery of English resistance. Churches and monasteries were burnt, and agricultural land was laid to waste, creating a famine for the unarmed and mostly peasant population which lasted at least nine years. Although the Danes were bribed to leave the north, King Sweyn of Denmark and his ships threatened the east coast (in alliance with various English, including Hereward the Wake) until a treaty of peace was concluded in June 1070.

Further north, where the boundary with Scotland was unclear, King Malcolm III was encroaching into England. Yet again, William moved swiftly and moved land and sea forces north to invade Scotland. The Treaty of Abernethy in 1072 marked a truce, which was reinforced by Malcolm's eldest son being accepted as a hostage.

William consolidated his conquest by starting a castle-building campaign in strategic areas. Originally these castles were wooden towers on earthen 'mottes' (mounds) with a bailey (defensive area) surrounded by earth ramparts, but many were later rebuilt in stone. By the end of William's reign over 80 castles had been built throughout his kingdom, as a permanent reminder of the new Norman feudal order.

William's wholesale confiscation of land from English nobles and their heirs (many nobles had died at the battles of Stamford Bridge and Senlac) enabled him to recruit and retain an army, by demanding military duties in exchange for land tenancy granted to Norman, French and Flemish allies. He created up to 180 'honours' (lands scattered through shires, with a castle as the governing centre), and in return had some 5,000 knights at his disposal to repress rebellions and pursue campaigns; the knights were augmented by mercenaries and English infantry from the Anglo-Saxon militia, raised from local levies. William also used the fyrd, the royal army - a military arrangement which had survived the Conquest. The King's tenants-in-chief in turn created knights under obligation to them and for royal duties (this was called subinfeudation), with the result that private armies centred around private castles were created - these were to cause future problems of anarchy for unfortunate or weak kings. By the end of William's reign, a small group of the King's tenants had acquired about half of England's landed wealth. Only two Englishmen still held large estates directly from the King. A foreign aristocracy had been imposed as the new governing class.

The expenses of numerous campaigns, together with an economic slump (caused by the shifts in landed wealth, and the devastation of northern England for military and political reasons), prompted William to order a full-scale investigation into the actual and potential wealth of the kingdom to maximise tax revenues. The Domesday survey was prompted by ignorance of the state of land holding in England, as well as the result of the costs of defence measures in England and renewed war in France. The scope, speed, efficiency and completion of this survey was remarkable for its time and resulted in the two-volume Domesday Book of 1086, which still exists today. William needed to ensure the direct loyalty of his feudal tenants. The 1086 Oath of Salisbury was a gathering of William's 170 tenants-in-chief and other important landowners who took an Oath of fealty to William.

William's reach extended elsewhere into the Church and the legal system. French superseded the vernacular (Anglo-Saxon). Personally devout, William used his bishops to carry out administrative duties. Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1070, was a first-class administrator who assisted in government when William was absent in France, and who reorganised the Church in England. Having established the primacy of his archbishopric over that of York, and with William's approval, Lanfranc excommunicated rebels, and set up Church or spiritual courts to deal with ecclesiastical matters. Lanfranc also replaced English bishops and abbots (some of whom had already been removed by the Council of Winchester under papal authority) with Norman or French clergy to reduce potential political resistance. In addition, Canterbury and Durham Cathedrals were rebuilt and some of the bishops' sees were moved to urban centres.

At his coronation, William promised to uphold existing laws and customs. The Anglo-Saxon shire courts and 'hundred' courts (which administered defence and tax, as well as justice matters) remained intact, as did regional variations and private Anglo-Saxon jurisdictions. To strengthen royal justice, William relied on sheriffs (previously smaller landowners, but replaced by influential nobles) to supervise the administration of justice in existing county courts, and sent members of his own court to conduct important trials. However, the introduction of Church courts, the mix of Norman/Roman law and the differing customs led to a continuing complex legal framework. More severe forest laws reinforced William's conversion of the New Forest into a vast Royal deer reserve. These laws caused great resentment, and to English chroniclers the New Forest became a symbol of William's greed. Nevertheless the King maintained peace and order. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1087 declared 'he was a very stern and violent man, so no one dared do anything contrary to his will ... Amongst other things the good security he made in this country is not to be forgotten.'

William spent the last months of his reign in Normandy, fighting a counter-offensive in the French Vexin territory against King Philip's annexation of outlying Normandy territory. Before his death on 9 September 1087, William divided his 'Anglo-Norman' state between his sons. (The scene was set for centuries of expensive commitments by successive English monarchs to defend their inherited territories in France.) William bequeathed Normandy as he had promised to his eldest son Robert, despite their bitter differences (Robert had sided with his father's enemies in Normandy, and even wounded and defeated his father in a battle there in 1079). His son, William Rufus, was to succeed William as King of England, and the third remaining son, Henry, was left 5,000 pounds in silver. William was buried in his abbey foundation of St Stephen at Caen. Desecrated by Huguenots (1562) and Revolutionaries (1793), the burial place of the first Norman king of England is marked by a simple stone slab.[76]

In 1051 when William was 24, he married Matilda of Flanders[74],[77].[74] They had the following children:
              i.       Robert (~1052-1134)
              ii.       William (~1057-1100)
              iii.       Adela (~1062-1135)
       376180       iv.       Henry (~1068-1136)
              v.       Constance
              vi.       Richard (-~1081)
              vii.       Cecilia (-1126)
              viii.       Adeliza (-1065)
              ix.       Agatha (-~1074)

752361 Matilda of Flanders.[74],[77] Born in 1030/32 in Flanders, France.[74] Matilda died in Caen, Normandy, France on 3 Nov 1083, she was 53.[73] Buried in Holy Trinity Abbey, Caen, France. Alias/AKA: Mathilda / Maud.

752366 Roger DE MONTGOMERY Earl of Shrewsbury.[78]

Roger married Mabel TALVAS.

They had the following children:
              i.       Roger (-1123)
       376183       ii.       Sybil

752367 Mabel TALVAS.


21st Generation
----------------------------------------

1504450 King of Wessex Athelred II "The Redeless".[79],[80],[81] Born abt 0968.[82] Athelred died in London, England on 23 Apr 1016, he was 48. Buried in Old St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England. Alias/AKA: Ethelred.

Ethelred, the younger son of Edgar, became king at the age of seven following the murder of his half-brother Edward II in 978 at Corfe Castle, Dorset, by Edward's own supporters.

For the rest of Ethelred's rule (reigned 978-1016), his brother became a posthumous rallying point for political unrest; a hostile Church transformed Edward into a royal martyr. Known as the Un-raed or 'Unready' (meaning 'no counsel', or that he was unwise), Ethelred failed to win or retain the allegiance of many of his subjects. In 1002, he ordered the massacre of all Danes in England to eliminate potential treachery.

Not being an able soldier, Ethelred defended the country against increasingly rapacious Viking raids from the 980s onwards by diplomatic alliance with the duke of Normandy in 991 (he later married the duke's daughter Emma) and by buying off renewed attacks by the Danes with money levied through a tax called the Danegeld. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1006 was dismissive: 'in spite of it all, the Danish army went about as it pleased'. By 1012, 48,000 pounds of silver was being paid in Danegeld to Danes camped in London.

In 1013, Ethelred fled to Normandy when the powerful Viking Sweyn of Denmark dispossessed him. Ethelred returned to rule after Sweyn's death in 1014, but died himself in 1016.[76]

On 5 Apr 1002 when Athelred was 34, he married Emma of Normandy. They had the following children:
              i.       Edward (~1004-1066)
              ii.       Alfred (-1036)
       752225       iii.       Godgifu (Gofa) (-<1049)

1504451 Emma of Normandy.

1504656 Count Lambert DE LOUVAIN I "The Bearded".[61] Born abt 0950.[83] Lambert died on 12 Nov 1015, he was 65.[84] killed. Occupation: Count of Brabant. abt 0990 when Lambert was 40, he married Gerbega DE LORRAINE.[85] They had the following children:
       752328       i.       Lambert (ca0991->1062)
              ii.       Maude

1504657 Gerbega DE LORRAINE. Born abt 0975.[83] Gerbega died aft 27 Jan 1018, she was 43.[86]

1504658 Duke of Lower Lorriane Gozelon DE LORRAINE I.[87] Gozelon died in 1044.[88]

Children:
       752329       i.       Oda
              ii.       Regilinde (-1064)

1504666 Hilduin DE MONTDIDIER IV. Hilduin died abt 1063.[63] Occupation: Count of Montdidier and Roucy, Lord of Rameru.[63] Hilduin married Alice DE ROUCY. They had the following children:
              i.       Margaret
              ii.       Beatrix
       752333       iii.       Adela

1504667 Alice DE ROUCY. Alice died in 1062.[89] Alias/AKA: Alix.

1504704 Anschitil DE BESSIN.

Child:
       752352       i.       Ranulph

1504706 Duke of Normandy Richard III. Richard died on 6 Aug 1028.[90] Richard married unknown. They had one child:
       752353       i.       Alice (Illegitimate)

1504707 unknown.

1504720 6th Duke of Normandy Robert DE NORMANDY I "The Magnificent".[77],[91] Born abt 0999 in Normandy, France. Robert died in Nicea, Bithynia, Turkey on 2 Jul 1035, he was 36.

Herleva DE FALAIS was his mistress.[77]

They had the following children:
       752360       i.       William (1027-1087)
              ii.       Adeliza (1026-<1090)

1504721 Herleva DE FALAIS. Born in 1003. Herleva died abt 1050, she was 47. Alias/AKA: Arlette / Harlette.

1504722 Count of Flanders Baldwin DE LILLE V.[92] Born abt 1012.[93] Baldwin died in Lyle on 2 Sep 1067, he was 55. Alias/AKA: Baudoin.

"Baldwin V rebelled in 1028 against his father at the instigation of his wife Adela, daughter of Robert II of France; but two years later peace was sworn at Oudenaarde, and the old count continued to reign until his death in 1036. Baldwin V proved a worthy successor, and acquired from the people the surname of Debonnaire. He was an active enterprising man and greatly extended his power by wars and alliances. He obtained from the emperor Henry IV, the territory between the Scheldt and the Dender as an imperial fief, and the margraviate of Antwerp. So powerful had he become that the Flemish count on the decease of Henry I of France in 1060 was appointed regent during the minority of Philip I. Before his death, he saw his eldest daughter Mathilda (d. 1083) sharing the English throne with William the Conqueror, his eldest son Baldwin of Mons in possession of Hainaut in right of his wife Richilde, heiress of Regnier V. (d. 1036) and widow of Hermann of Saxony (d. 1050) and his second son Robert the Frisian regent of the Co. of Holland during the minority of Kirk V."

"Baldwin V, 'of Lille', marquis of Flanders 1035-67."[94] In 1028 when Baldwin was 16, he married Adele CAPET of France[51]. They had the following children:
       752361       i.       Matilda (1030-1083)
              ii.       Baldwin[51] (-1070)
              iii.       Robert (-1093)
              iv.       Judith (-1125)

1504723 Adele CAPET of France.[51] Adele died on 8 Jan 1078/79. Alias/AKA: Adélaïde.

1504734 William TALVAS Prince of Belleme. William died in 1070.[78]

Child:
       752367       i.       Mabel


22nd Generation
----------------------------------------

3008900 King of England Edgar "The Peaceable".[95],[96],[97] Born abt 0943. Edgar died in Winchester, Hampshire, England on 8 Jul 0975, he was 32. Buried in Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset, England.

Edgar, king in Mercia and the Danelaw from 957, succeeded his brother as king of the English on Edwy's death in 959 - a death which probably prevented civil war breaking out between the two brothers. Edgar was a firm and capable ruler whose power was acknowledged by other rulers in Britain, as well as by Welsh and Scottish kings. Edgar's late coronation in 973 at Bath was the first to be recorded in some detail; his queen Aelfthryth was the first consort to be crowned queen of England.

Edgar was the patron of a great monastic revival which owed much to his association with Archbishop Dunstan. New bishoprics were created, Benedictine monasteries were reformed and old monastic sites were re-endowed with royal grants, some of which were of land recovered from the Vikings.

In the 970s and in the absence of Viking attacks, Edgar - a stern judge - issued laws which for the first time dealt with Northumbria (parts of which were in the Danelaw) as well as Wessex and Mercia. Edgar's coinage was uniform throughout the kingdom. A more united kingdom based on royal justice and order was emerging; the Monastic Agreement (c.970) praised Edgar as 'the glorious, by the grace of Christ illustrious king of the English and of the other peoples dwelling within the bounds of the island of Britain'. After his death on 8 July 975, Edgar was buried at Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset.[76]

abt 0964 when Edgar was 21, he married Elfrida (Ealfthryth).[98] They had one child:
       1504450       i.       Athelred (~0968-1016)

3008901 Elfrida (Ealfthryth). Born abt 0945. Elfrida (Ealfthryth) died abt 1002, she was 57.

3008902 Duke of Normandy Richard I "The Fearless". Born in 0933 in Fecamp, Normandy, France. Richard died on 20 Nov 0996, he was 63.[99]

Research: Had a Danish marriage with Gunnora Crepon of Denmark (in AR, Gunnor, dau of the forester of Arques) and an official marriage (960) with Emma (daughter of Hugh Capet, Count of Paris). After Emma's death (968), Richard and Gunnora had a Christian marriage to legitimize their children in 958 Duke Richard married Hugh the Great's daughter. He died in 996 and was succeeded by his son, Richard II.

ruled between 942 and 996 in Normandy

Research: "When in 942 William was murdered at the instigation of Count Arnulf of Flanders, his son Richard, still a minor, succeeded him. Louis IV and Hugh the Great each tried to sieze Normandy, and Louis took charge of Richard. He then ensconced himself at Rouen and Hugh took Bayeux, which still had a Scandinavian leader called Sictric. Richard escaped from his custody at Laon, retook Rouen, and called on another Viking leader, Harald of the Bassin, for help. The Normans under Richard were able to re-establish their autonomy and from 947 Richard governed in relative peace. In 965 he wore allegiance to the Carolingian king Lothar at Gisors. Richard's official marriage was to Emma, daughter of Hugh the Great; they had no children, but by his common-law wife Gunnor, a Dane, he had many. Richard II, son of Gunnor and Richard I, succeeded his father in 996, another son Robert was archbishop of Rouen from 989 to 1037 and Emma their daughter became queen of England on her marriage to Aethelred, a position she maintained after his death in 1016 by marrying Cnot. Gunnor's nephews and other relatives furthermore formed the core of the new aristocracy which developed in the course of the eleventh century. Unfortunately we know little about the internal organization and history of Normandy until the reign of Richard II, and this falls outside our period."[100]

Research: "The Acknowledged Children of Richard I: Sons. The most revealing evidence of the prestige and power of Richard and his successor is to be found in the endowments and marriages of their children. The wife whose Norseness and high status made her an acceptable equal in the eyes of his chieftains was a woman whose children commanded paternal recognition, for they would have powerful maternal kinsmen upon whose loyalty they could call. Even so, it is remarkable that Dudo, with Gunnor at his side, tells the reader only the number of children she bore Richard: five boys and three girls. He does not give their names, and Richard's sons defy full identification. Richard II was certainly Gunnor's son, as was his virtual coruler, Robert, archbishop of Rouen. Charters identify their relationship clearly, but they do not identify any of her husband's other sons as Gunnor's...."

"Richard I and his new settler in-laws of the 960s were the winners who lasted. In becoming so they learned (and taught) two principles of success that marked them off from the Franks. They learned the value of a strong centralizing chieftain who could at least freeze the status quo once his own local chieftains had taken what they wanted. The more successful he was, the more chiefs attached themselves to him for just this: with his warranty, backed by his chieftains, their defeated enemies could not recover by violence what had been taken from them by violence. Thus were the Norman dukes 'settlers of quarrels.' Fearlessness was the necessary quality in such a coordinating chieftain, and Richard I, who has no encomiast of his deeds, has at least this sobriquet, "the Fearless" Those who were great fighters and the ruthlessly, selectively violent, were the great centralizers among the threatened and rapacious Norse."[101]

Richard married Gunnora HARALDSDOTTIR of Denmark (de Crêpon)[102]. They had the following children:
       3009412       i.       Richard (~0963-1026)
              ii.       Hawise (-1034)
              iii.       Robert (-1037)
              iv.       Godfrey
              v.       William (-1054)
       1504451       vi.       Emma
              vii.       Matilda

3008903 Gunnora HARALDSDOTTIR of Denmark (de Crêpon).[102] Gunnora died in 1031.

3009312 Count Regnier DE HAINAUT III. Born abt 0920.[103] Regnier died in 0973, he was 53.[103] Regnier married Adelaide DE EQUISHEIM. They had the following children:
       12037340       i.       Regnier (~0950-1013)
       1504656       ii.       Lambert (~0950-1015)

3009313 Adelaide DE EQUISHEIM.

3009314 Charles DE LORRAINE Duke of Upper Lorraine.[61] Born in 0953. Charles died in 0994, he was 41. bef 0979 when Charles was 26, he married Adelheid. They had the following children:
       1504657       i.       Gerbega (~0975->1018)
              ii.       Ermengarde

3009315 Adelheid. Alias/AKA: Adelaide.

3009334 Ebles RHEIMS-ROUCY. Ebles died on 11 May 1103.[104] Occupation: Count of Rheims and Roucy, Archbishop of Rheims. Ebles married Beatrix DE HAINAUT. They had one child:
       1504667       i.       Alice (-1062)

3009335 Beatrix DE HAINAUT.

3009412 4th Duke of Normandy Richard II "The Good". Born abt 0963 in Normandy, France. Richard died in Fecamp, France on 28 Aug 1026, he was 63. Richard married Judith of Brittany[77].

They had the following children:
       1504706       i.       Richard (-1028)
       1504720       ii.       Robert (~0999-1035)
              iii.       Alice (-1037)
              iv.       Eleanor (-1071)
              v.       Mauger
              vi.       William

3009413 Judith of Brittany.[77] Born in 0982 in Bretagne (Brittany), France. Judith died in Normandy, France in 1017, she was 35. Founded Abbey of Bernay, Normandy, France about 1026[105]

3009440 same as ahnentafel number 3009412
3009441 same as ahnentafel number 3009413

3009442 Fulbert DE FALAISE. Born abt 0978 in Falaise, Normandy, France. Fulbert died in Normandy, France in 1017, he was 39. Fulbert married Doda. They had one child:
       1504721       i.       Herleva (1003-~1050)

3009443 Doda. Born abt 0980 in Falaise, Normandy, France.

3009444 Count of Flanders Baldwin IV "The Bearded".[106],[107] Born abt 0980. Baldwin died on 30 May 1036, he was 56. In 1012 when Baldwin was 32, he married Otgiva (Ogive) of Luxembourg. They had the following children:
       1504722       i.       Baldwin (~1012-1067)
              ii.       Judith

3009445 Otgiva (Ogive) of Luxembourg. Born abt 0995. Otgiva (Ogive) died in Lille, France on 21 Feb 1030, she was 35.

3009446 King of France Robert CAPET II "The Pious". Robert died in 1031.[108] abt 1001 Robert married Constance D'ARLES de Toulouse et Provence.[109] They had the following children:
              i.       Henry (1008-1060)
              ii.       Hugues
              iii.       Eudes
              iv.       Robert (-1075)
       1504723       v.       Adele (-1078)

3009447 Constance D'ARLES de Toulouse et Provence. Constance died on 25 Jul 1032.


23rd Generation
----------------------------------------

6017800 King of the English Edmund I "The Magnificent".[110],[111],[96] Born abt 0921. Edmund died in Pucklechurch, England on 26 May 0946, he was 25. murdered. Buried in Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset, England.

When Athelstan died without immediate successors, his half brother Edmund successfully suppressed rebellions by the Mercian Danes. Edmund I was murdered at a feast in his own hall, at the age of 25 in 946, after only seven years on the throne, and his brother Edred succeeded him.[76]

Edmund married Saint Elgiva (Alfgifu). They had the following children:
       3008900       i.       Edgar (~0943-0975)
              ii.       Edwy

6017801 Saint Elgiva (Alfgifu). Elgiva (Alfgifu) died abt 0945.

6017802 Ordgar Ealdorman of Devon. Child:
       3008901       i.       Elfrida (Ealfthryth) (~0945-~1002)

6017804 Duke of Normandy William LONGSWORD (LONGESPEE). Born in 0891 in Normandy, France. William died in France on 17 Dec 0942, he was 51.[112],[113] killed by servants of Theobald of Blois and Arnulf of Flanders.

Research: ruled between 930 and 942

During the minority of his (William Long-Sword) successor, Duke Richard, King Louis IV -- who was making an expedition into Normandy -- was captured by the inhabitants of Rouen and handed over to Hugh the Great. From this time onwards the dukes of Normandy began to enter into relations with the dukes of France.

Sprota (Espriota) DE BRETAGNE (DE SENLIS) of Brittany was a mistress to William. They had one child:
       3008902       i.       Richard (0933-0996)

6017805 Sprota (Espriota) DE BRETAGNE (DE SENLIS) of Brittany. Born abt 0911. Research: [114]Concubine of William

On page 192 she says, "Richard I was stated by Norman and Frankish writers alike to have been the son of William Longsword and a Breton concubine, who acquired the name of Sprota during the eleventh century. One must probably accept that Richard was born to a concubine and not to William's wife Liutgarde, but we certainly have not been told the truth about Sprota. [new paragraph] For a reputable Frankish chronicler like Flodoard, the information that William's concubine was brought out of Brittany could easily have led to the assumption that she was Breton--concubina brittana--but that might have been a false assumption, since she could have been the daughter of a Viking chief established in Brittany." On page 193, she says, "It may be that Richard I's mother was a noble Breton of the family of Alan Barbetorte, captured during William's vengeful campaign in Brittany in 931-33. The birth of Richard a few years later perhaps helps to explain both the timing of Athelstan's approach to William and the softening of William's attitude to Alan."

6017806 King of Denmark Harald BLUETOOTH III. Born abt 0910.[115] Harald died on 1 Nov 0986, he was 76.[116],[115] murdered. Occupation: King of Denmark and Norway.[115]

Harald married Gunhilda of Sweden. They had the following children:
       3008903       i.       Gunnora (-1031)
              ii.       Thyra (-1000)
              iii.       Swein (Swen) (~0960-1014)
              iv.       Herfast[102]

6017807 Gunhilda of Sweden.

6018624 Count Regnier DE HAINAUT II. Born abt 0890. Regnier died in 0932, he was 42.[117] Regnier married Adelaide DE BURGUNDY. They had one child:
       3009312       i.       Regnier (~0920-0973)

6018625 Adelaide DE BURGUNDY. Adelaide died in 0921.[117]

6018626 Count Hugh DE EQUISHEIM. Child:
       3009313       i.       Adelaide

6018628 King of Franks Louis IV "From Overseas".[118] Born on 10 Sep 0920. Louis died in Reims, France on 10 Sep 0954, he was 34. Buried in St. Remy, Reims, France. In 0939 when Louis was 18, he married Queen of Franks Gerberga of Saxony. They had the following children:
              i.       Lothair (0941-0986)
              ii.       Matilda (ca0943-0981)
       3009314       iii.       Charles (0953-0994)

6018629 Queen of Franks Gerberga of Saxony. Born in 0913. Gerberga died in Reims, France on 5 May 0984, she was 71.[119] Buried in Reims, France.

6018668 Giselbert RHEIMS-ROUCY. Children:
              i.       Yvette
       3009334       ii.       Ebles (-1103)

6018670 Regnier DE HAINAUT V, Count of Hainault. Regnier married Mathilde DE VERDUN. They had one child:
       3009335       i.       Beatrix

6018671 Mathilde DE VERDUN.

6018824 same as ahnentafel number 3008902
6018825 same as ahnentafel number 3008903

6018826 Duke of Brittany Conan DE BRETAGNE I, Count of Rennes. Conan died on 27 Jun 0992.[120] Research: aka "The Crooked"[77] In 0980 Conan married Ermengarde D'ANJOU.[77] They had the following children:
       3009413       i.       Judith (0982-1017)
              ii.       Geoffrey[77] (-1008)
              iii.       Fulk[77]

6018827 Ermengarde D'ANJOU.

6018888 Count of Flanders Arnulf II "The Young".[106] Born in 0962/963. Arnulf died on 30 Mar 0987, he was 25. Alias/AKA: Arnulph, Arnold. Arnulf married Susanna of Italy (Istria)[51]. They had one child:
       3009444       i.       Baldwin (~0980-1036)

6018889 Susanna of Italy (Istria).[51] Born in 0950. Susanna died on 26 Jan 1003, she was 53. Alias/AKA: Rosala / Rozela.

6018890 Count of Luxembourg Frederick I. Frederick died in 1019.[121] Frederick married Irmentrude DE GLEIBERG. They had the following children:
       3009445       i.       Otgiva (Ogive) (~0995-1030)
              ii.       Gisele

6018891 Irmentrude DE GLEIBERG. Alias/AKA: Ermentrude.

6018892 King of France Hugh CAPET. Born abt 0939. Hugh died in Les Juifs, near Chartres, France on 24 Oct 0996, he was 57.[122] bef 0969 when Hugh was 30, he married Adelais DE POITOU[91],[123].[124] They had the following children:
       12037341       i.       Edith (->1013)
              ii.       Gisèle
              iii.       Adélaïde
       3009446       iv.       Robert (-1031)

6018893 Adelais DE POITOU.[91],[123] Born in 0945.[124] Adelais died on 15 Jun 1006, she was 61. Alias/AKA: Adelaide.

6018894 Count of Provence William TAILLEFER II. William died abt 0995. William married Adelais D'ANJOU. They had the following children:
       3009447       i.       Constance (-1032)
              ii.       Ermengarde

6018895 Adelais D'ANJOU. Alias/AKA: Adelaide.


24th Generation
----------------------------------------

12035600 King of the West Saxons Edward "The Elder".[125],[126],[127] Born abt 0871 in Wessex, England. Edward died in Farndon-on-Dee, England on 17 Jul 0924, he was 53.[128],[129] Buried in Winchester Cathedral, Hampshire, England.

Anglo-Saxon king in England, the son of Alfred the Great. As ruler of the West Saxons, or Wessex, from 899 to 924, Edward extended his authority over almost all of England by conquering areas that previously had been held by Danish invaders.

Edward ascended the throne upon his father's death in October 899, and in a battle in 902 his forces killed a rival claimant, Aethelwald, who had allied with the Danes. After defeating the Northumbrian Danes at Tettenhall, he set out in August 912 to subdue the Danes of the eastern Midlands and East Anglia. From 910 to 916 he constructed a series of fortified enclosures around his Kingdom of Wessex.

At the same time, his sister, the Mercian ruler Aethelflaed , constructed a complementary series of fortresses in the northwest Midlands. In 917 Edward and Aethelflaed launched a massive offensive, quickly overwhelming the entire Danish army of East Anglia. Upon Aethelflaed's death in June 918, Edward assumed control of Mercia, and by the end of the year the last Danish armies in the Midlands had submitted. By that time Edward's kingdom included all the land south of the Humber estuary; in 920 he pacified Northumbria. Complete political unification of England was achieved during the reign of his son and successor, Athelstan (reigned 924-939).[130]

Well-trained by Alfred, his son Edward 'the Elder' (reigned 899-924) was a bold soldier who defeated the Danes in Northumbria at Tettenhall in 910 and was acknowledged by the Viking kingdom of York. The kings of Strathclyde and the Scots submitted to Edward in 921. By military success and patient planning, Edward spread English influence and control. Much of this was due to his alliance with his formidable sister Aethelflaed, who was married to the ruler of Mercia and seems to have governed that kingdom after her husband's death.

Edward was able to establish an administration for the kingdom of England, whilst obtaining the allegiance of Danes, Scots and Britons. Edward died in 924, and he was buried in the New Minster which he had had completed at Winchester. Edward was twice married, but it is possible that his eldest son Athelstan was the son of a mistress.[76]

Edward married Edgiva (Eadgifu) of Kent. They had the following children:
       6017800       i.       Edmund (~0921-0946)
              ii.       Eadburh
              iii.       Edgiva
              iv.       Eadred (Edred)

12035601 Edgiva (Eadgifu) of Kent. Born abt 0875.

12035608 1st Duke of Normandy Rollo.[91] Born abt 0854 in Maer, Norway. actual birth date and location are unknown, these are educated guesses. Rollo died in 0927, he was 73. Buried in Notre Dame, Rouen, France. Alias/AKA: Hrolf / Ganger. Rollo married Duchess of Normandy, Lady Poppa de Valois.

They had the following children:
       6017804       i.       William (0891-0942)
       12037787       ii.       Adela (-~0962)
              iii.       Kathlin
              iv.       Osvald
              v.       Robert
              vi.       Crespina
              vii.       Gerletta

12035609 Duchess of Normandy, Lady Poppa de Valois. Born abt 0872 in Evreaux, Normandy, France.

12035610 Hubert Count of Senlis. Born abt 0880 in Bretagne (Brittany), France. Hubert married unknown. They had one child:
       6017805       i.       Sprota (Espriota) (~0911-)

12035611 unknown.

12035612 King of Denmark Gorm "The Old". Gorm died abt 0950.[131],[132],[133] Buried in Jellinge. Occupation: King of Denmark (883-941); King of East Anglia (905-918); King of Seeland; King of Jutland (abt 880).[133] Gorm married Thyra HAROLDSDOTTIR "Danebord". They had one child:
       6017806       i.       Harald (~0910-0986)

12035613 Thyra HAROLDSDOTTIR "Danebord". Thyra died abt 0935.[133]

12035614 King of Sweden Olaf EDMUNDSON. Olaf died in 0964.[134] Occupation: King of Sweden, King of Uppsala.[134] Olaf married Ingelberg. They had the following children:
       6017807       i.       Gunhilda
              ii.       Styrbjorn (0956-0985)

12035615 Ingelberg.

12037248 Count Regnier DE LORRAINE I. Regnier died aft Oct 0915.[135] Regnier married Hersent. They had the following children:
       24074674       i.       Giselbert (Gilbert) (-0939)
       6018624       ii.       Regnier (~0890-0932)

12037249 Hersent.

12037250 Duke Richard DE BURGUNDY. Richard married Adelaide D'AUXERRE. They had one child:
       6018625       i.       Adelaide (-0921)

12037251 Adelaide D'AUXERRE.

12037256 King of Franks Charles III, "The Simple". Born on 17 Sep 0879 in Peronne, Somme, France. Charles died in Peronne, Somme, France on 7 Oct 0929, he was 50.[136] Buried in St. Fursy. Occupation: King of France, 893; deposed 922. Charles married Eadgifu (Edgiva). They had one child:
       6018628       i.       Louis (0920-0954)

12037257 Eadgifu (Edgiva). Eadgifu (Edgiva) died abt 0953.[137]

12037258 Holy Roman Emperor Henry VON BABENBERG "The Fowler". Born in 0876. Henry died in Memleben, Germany on 2 Jul 0936, he was 60. Occupation: Duke of Saxony, Emperor of Germany 912. Henry married Mechtilde VON RINGELHEIM[138]. They had the following children:
       6018629       i.       Gerberga (0913-0984)
              ii.       Otto[76] (-0973)
              iii.       Henry

12037259 Mechtilde VON RINGELHEIM.[138] Born ca 0890. Mechtilde died on 14 Mar 0968, she was 78.[139] Alias/AKA: Matilda.

12037336 Renaud RHEIMS-ROUCY Count of Rheims and Roucy. Renaud died on 15 Mar 0973.[140] Renaud married Alberade DE LORRAINE. They had the following children:
              i.       Ermentrude (Irmtrude)
       6018668       ii.       Giselbert

12037337 Alberade DE LORRAINE.

12037340 Regnier DE HAINAUT IV, Count of Hainault. Born abt 0950.[124] Regnier died in 1013, he was 63.[141] Regnier married Edith CAPET. They had one child:
       6018670       i.       Regnier

12037341 Edith CAPET. Edith died aft 1013.[124] Alias/AKA: Hedwig.

12037342 Herman DE VERDUN Count of Verdun. Herman married Richilde. They had one child:
       6018671       i.       Mathilde

12037343 Richilde.

12037652 Juhel of Rennes. Juhel died in 0952. Child:
       6018826       i.       Conan (-0992)

12037654 Count Geoffrey D'ANJOU "Grisgonelle/Greymantle". Geoffrey died in 0987. Geoffrey married Adélaïde DE VERMANDOIS[77]. They had the following children:
       6018827       i.       Ermengarde
              ii.       Gerberga
              iii.       Fulk (-1040)

12037655 Adélaïde DE VERMANDOIS.[77] Born in 0950. Adélaïde died abt 0975, she was 25.

12037776 Count of Flanders Baldwin III.[106] Baldwin died on 1 Jan 0961/962. Baldwin married Matilda of Saxony[51]. They had one child:
       6018888       i.       Arnulf (0962-0987)

12037777 Matilda of Saxony.[51] Matilda died on 28 May 1008 in Saxony, Germany.

12037778 King of Italy Berengarius II. Berengarius died on 6 Aug 0966.[142] Berengarius married Willa of Tuscany[143]. They had the following children:
       6018889       i.       Susanna (0950-1003)
              ii.       Adelbert (-0966)
              iii.       Junca

12037779 Willa of Tuscany.[143]

12037780 Siegfried Count of Luxembourg. Siegfried died on 15 Aug 0998.[144] Siegfried married Hedwig. They had the following children:
       6018890       i.       Frederick (-1019)
              ii.       Liutgard (-0995)

12037781 Hedwig. Hedwig died on 13 Dec 0992.

12037782 Duke Herbert DE GLEIBERG I. Herbert died in 0922. Occupation: Count of Kinziggau, Count of Gleiberg. Herbert married Itmentrude. They had one child:
       6018891       i.       Irmentrude

12037783 Itmentrude.

12037784 Count of Paris Hugh CAPET "The Great (Magnus)".[145] Hugh died on 16 Jun 0956 in Deurdan, France. Hugh married Edhilda (Hedwige) of Saxony. They had the following children:
       6018892       i.       Hugh (~0939-0996)
              ii.       Emma (-0968)

12037785 Edhilda (Hedwige) of Saxony. Edhilda (Hedwige) died aft 0965.

12037786 Count William DE POITOU I.[146] Born abt 0925.[147] William died on 3 Apr 0963, he was 38.[147] In 0935 when William was 10, he married Adela DE NORMANDY.[147] They had the following children:
       6018893       i.       Adelais (0945-1006)
              ii.       Guillaume (-1093)
              iii.       William[148]

12037787 Adela DE NORMANDY. Born in Normandy, France. Adela died abt 14 Oct 0962. Alias/AKA: Gerloc.

12037788 Boso D'AVIGNON II. Boso died in 0965. Occupation: Count of Avignon and Arles.[149] On 1 Ab 0930 Boso married Constance DE PROVENCE.[149] They had one child:
       6018894       i.       William (-~0995)

12037789 Constance DE PROVENCE. Constance died abt 0961.

12037790 Count Fulk D'ANJOU II, The Good.[77] Born abt 0909. Fulk died in 0960, he was 51. Fulk married Gerberga de Gatinais[77]. They had the following children:
       12037654       i.       Geoffrey (-0987)
       6018895       ii.       Adelais
              iii.       Blanche (Arsinde)

12037791 Gerberga de Gatinais.[77] Born abt 0913 in Maine, France. Gerberga died abt 0952, she was 39.


25th Generation
----------------------------------------

24071200 King of Wessex Alfred "The Great".[150],[151],[152],[153] Born abt 0847 in Wantage, Berkshire, England. Alfred died in Winchester, Hampshire, England on 26 Oct 0899, he was 52.[154] Buried in Winchester, Hampshire, England.

The course of English history would have been very different had it not been for King Alfred. He won renown both as a statesman and as a warrior and is justly called "the Great."

The England of Alfred's time was a country of four small Saxon kingdoms. The strongest was Wessex, in the south. Born in about 848, Alfred was the youngest son of Ethelwulf, king of Wessex. Each of Alfred's three older brothers, in turn, ruled the kingdom. Alfred was by temperament a scholar, and his health was never robust.

Nevertheless in his early youth he fought with his brother Ethelred against Danish invaders. Alfred was 23 when Ethelred died, but he had already won the confidence of the army and was at once acclaimed king in 871. By this time the Danes, or Vikings, had penetrated to all parts of the island. Three of the Saxon kingdoms-Northumbria, Mercia, and East Anglia-had one after another fallen to the Danish invaders.

Under Alfred's leadership, the Saxons again found courage. The worst crisis came in the winter of 877, when the Danish king, Guthrum, invaded Wessex with his army. In 878 Alfred was defeated at Chippenham, where he was celebrating Christmas, and was forced to go into hiding.

A few months later he forced Guthrum to surrender at Chippenham. The Danes agreed to make the Thames River and the old Roman road called Watling Street the boundary between Alfred's kingdom and the Danish lands to the north. The treaty, however, did not assure permanent peace. The Danes assaulted London and the coast towns repeatedly. In about 896 they finally admitted defeat and ceased their struggle for a foothold in southern England.

Alfred was much more than the defender of his country. He took a keen interest in law and order and was concerned with the improvement of the cultural standards of his people. He encouraged industries of all kinds and rebuilt London, which had been partly destroyed by the Danes. He collected and revised the old laws of the kingdom. He invited learned men from other countries to instruct the people because even the clergy of Wessex no longer knew Latin, the international language of the church. He established a school similar to the Palace School of Charlemagne.

The "books most necessary for all men to know" were translated from Latin into English so that the people might read them. Alfred himself took a part in preparing the translations. The `Anglo-Saxon Chronicle' was probably begun under his direction.

Alfred died at the age of about 51 in 899. He was in no sense a true king of England, for he ruled less than half of the island. After his death, however, his capable son, Edward the Elder, and his grandsons extended their rule over all of England.[130]

Born at Wantage, Berkshire, in 849, Alfred was the fifth son of Aethelwulf, king of the West Saxons. At their father's behest and by mutual agreement, Alfred's elder brothers succeeded to the kingship in turn, rather than endanger the kingdom by passing it to under-age children at a time when the country was threatened by worsening Viking raids from Denmark.

Since the 790s, the Vikings had been using fast mobile armies, numbering thousands of men embarked in shallow-draught longships, to raid the coasts and inland waters of England for plunder. Such raids were evolving into permanent Danish settlements; in 867, the Vikings seized York and established their own kingdom in the southern part of Northumbria. The Vikings overcame two other major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, East Anglia and Mercia, and their kings were either tortured to death or fled. Finally, in 870 the Danes attacked the only remaining independent Anglo-Saxon kingdom, Wessex, whose forces were commanded by King Aethelred and his younger brother Alfred. At the battle of Ashdown in 871, Alfred routed the Viking army in a fiercely fought uphill assault. However, further defeats followed for Wessex and Alfred's brother died.

As king of Wessex at the age of 21, Alfred (reigned 871-99) was a strongminded but highly strung battle veteran at the head of remaining resistance to the Vikings in southern England. In early 878, the Danes led by King Guthrum seized Chippenham in Wiltshire in a lightning strike and used it as a secure base from which to devastate Wessex. Local people either surrendered or escaped (Hampshire people fled to the Isle of Wight), and the West Saxons were reduced to hit and run attacks seizing provisions when they could. With only his royal bodyguard, a small army of thegns (the king's followers) and Aethelnoth earldorman of Somerset as his ally, Alfred withdrew to the Somerset tidal marshes in which he had probably hunted as a youth. (It was during this time that Alfred, in his preoccupation with the defence of his kingdom, allegedly burned some cakes which he had been asked to look after; the incident was a legend dating from early twelfth century chroniclers.)

A resourceful fighter, Alfred reassessed his strategy and adopted the Danes' tactics by building a fortified base at Athelney in the Somerset marshes and summoning a mobile army of men from Wiltshire, Somerset and part of Hampshire to pursue guerrilla warfare against the Danes. In May 878, Alfred's army defeated the Danes at the battle of Edington. According to his contemporary biographer Bishop Asser, 'Alfred attacked the whole pagan army fighting ferociously in dense order, and by divine will eventually won the victory, made great slaughter among them, and pursued them to their fortress (Chippenham) ... After fourteen days the pagans were brought to the extreme depths of despair by hunger, cold and fear, and they sought peace'. This unexpected victory proved to be the turning point in Wessex's battle for survival.

Realising that he could not drive the Danes out of the rest of England, Alfred concluded peace with them in the treaty of Wedmore. King Guthrum was converted to Christianity with Alfred as godfather and many of the Danes returned to East Anglia where they settled as farmers. In 886, Alfred negotiated a partition treaty with the Danes, in which a frontier was demarcated along the Roman Watling Street and northern and eastern England came under the jurisdiction of the Danes - an area known as 'Danelaw'. Alfred therefore gained control of areas of West Mercia and Kent which had been beyond the boundaries of Wessex. To consolidate alliances against the Danes, Alfred married one of his daughters, Aethelflaed, to the ealdorman of Mercia -Alfred himself had married Eahlswith, a Mercian noblewoman - and another daughter, Aelfthryth, to the count of Flanders, a strong naval power at a time when the Vikings were settling in eastern England.

The Danish threat remained, and Alfred reorganised the Wessex defences in recognition that efficient defence and economic prosperity were interdependent. First, he organised his army (the thegns, and the existing militia known as the fyrd) on a rota basis, so he could raise a 'rapid reaction force' to deal with raiders whilst still enabling his thegns and peasants to tend their farms.

Second, Alfred started a building programme of well-defended settlements across southern England. These were fortified market places ('borough' comes from the Old English burh, meaning fortress); by deliberate royal planning, settlers received plots and in return manned the defences in times of war. (Such plots in London under Alfred's rule in the 880s shaped the streetplan which still exists today between Cheapside and the Thames.) This obligation required careful recording in what became known as 'the Burghal Hidage', which gave details of the building and manning of Wessex and Mercian burhs according to their size, the length of their ramparts and the number of men needed to garrison them. Centred round Alfred's royal palace in Winchester, this network of burhs with strongpoints on the main river routes was such that no part of Wessex was more than 20 miles from the refuge of one of these settlements. Together with a navy of new fast ships built on Alfred's orders, southern England now had a defence in depth against Danish raiders.

Alfred's concept of kingship extended beyond the administration of the tribal kingdom of Wessex into a broader context. A religiously devout and pragmatic man who learnt Latin in his late thirties, he recognised that the general deterioration in learning and religion caused by the Vikings' destruction of monasteries (the centres of the rudimentary education network) had serious implications for rulership. For example, the poor standards in Latin had led to a decline in the use of the charter as an instrument of royal government to disseminate the king's instructions and legislation. In one of his prefaces, Alfred wrote 'so general was its [Latin] decay in England that there were very few on this side of the Humber who could understand their rituals in English or translate a letter from Latin into English ... so few that I cannot remember a single one south of the Thames when I came to the throne.'

To improve literacy, Alfred arranged, and took part in, the translation (by scholars from Mercia) from Latin into Anglo-Saxon of a handful of books he thought it 'most needful for men to know, and to bring it to pass ... if we have the peace, that all the youth now in England ... may be devoted to learning'. These books covered history, philosophy and Gregory the Great's 'Pastoral Care' (a handbook for bishops), and copies of these books were sent to all the bishops of the kingdom. Alfred was patron of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (which was copied and supplemented up to 1154), a patriotic history of the English from the Wessex viewpoint designed to inspire its readers and celebrate Alfred and his monarchy.

Like other West Saxon kings, Alfred established a legal code; he assembled the laws of Offa and other predecessors, and of the kingdoms of Mercia and Kent, adding his own administrative regulations to form a definitive body of Anglo-Saxon law. 'I ... collected these together and ordered to be written many of them which our forefathers observed, those which I liked; and many of those which I did not like I rejected with the advice of my councillors ... For I dared not presume to set in writing at all many of my own, because it was unknown to me what would please those who should come after us ... Then I ... showed those to all my councillors, and they then said that they were all pleased to observe them' (Laws of Alfred, c.885-99).

By the 890s, Alfred's charters and coinage (which he had also reformed, extending its minting to the burhs he had founded) referred to him as 'king of the English', and Welsh kings sought alliances with him. Alfred died in 899, aged 50, and was buried in Winchester, the burial place of the West Saxon royal family.

By stopping the Viking advance and consolidating his territorial gains, Alfred had started the process by which his successors eventually extended their power over the other Anglo-Saxon kings; the ultimate unification of Anglo-Saxon England was to be led by Wessex. It is for his valiant defence of his kingdom against a stronger enemy, for securing peace with the Vikings and for his farsighted reforms in the reconstruction of Wessex and beyond, that Alfred - alone of all the English kings and queens - is known as 'the Great'.[76]

In 0868 when Alfred was 21, he married Eahlswith[76]. They had the following children:
       12035600       i.       Edward (~0871-0924)
              ii.       Athelflaed (Ethelflæd) (~0869-0918)
       48151105       iii.       Elfrida (-0929)
              iv.       Athelweard (-~0922)

24071201 Eahlswith.[76] Born in Mercia. Eahlswith died on 5 Dec 0902.[155]

24071202 Sigelhelm Ealdorman of Kent.[129] Child:
       12035601       i.       Edgiva (Eadgifu) (~0875-)

24071216 1st Earl (Jarl) of Orkney Ragnald EYSTEINSSON The Wise.[91] Born abt 0830 in Maer, Norway. Ragnald died in Orkney, Scotland (or Maer, Norway?) in 0890, he was 60.[156] Alias/AKA: Rognvald. Ragnald married Countess of Maer Ragnhild ROLBSDATTER. They had the following children:
       12035608       i.       Rollo (~0854-0927)
              ii.       Ivarr
              iii.       Thori

24071217 Countess of Maer Ragnhild ROLBSDATTER. Born ca 0848 in Norway.[156] Alias/AKA: Hilda.

24071218 Count Berenger & Bayeaux Pepin. Born abt 0847 in Bayeux, France. Pepin died in 0893, he was 46.
Pepin married unknown. They had one child:
       12035609       i.       Poppa (~0872-)

24071219 unknown.

24071224 King of Sjaelland Harald II "Parcus". Harald died in 0899.[131],[157] Harald married Princess of Norway Bertrade[157]. They had one child:
       12035612       i.       Gorm (-~0950)

24071225 Princess of Norway Bertrade.[157]

24071226 Earl of Jutland Harold "Klak". Occupation: built Danewiak 936/940.[133] Child:
       12035613       i.       Thyra (-~0935)

24071230 Earl of Sura Thraud.[134] Child:
       12035615       i.       Ingelberg

24074496 Count Giselbert (Gilbert) DE BRABANT. Giselbert (Gilbert) died in 0892. Giselbert (Gilbert) married Duchess Ermengarde DE MOSELLE. They had one child:
       12037248       i.       Regnier (->0915)

24074497 Duchess Ermengarde DE MOSELLE. Born in of Lorraine, France.

24074498 Holy Roman Emperor Charles I "The Bald".[158],[159] Born on 18 Jun 0823 in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany. Charles died in Rides-les-Bains, France on 6 Oct 0877, he was 54.[160] Buried in St. Denis. Occupation: Holy Roman Emperor (crowned 875 AD), King of the West Franks, 843.

Research: known as "Charles the Bald", King of Neustria 843-877, Emperor 875-877

On 14 Dec 0842 when Charles was 19, he married Ermentrude of Orleans. They had the following children:
       12037249       i.       Hersent
       24074512       ii.       Louis (0846-0879)
              iii.       Charles (-0866)
              iv.       Carloman (-0876)
       96302209       v.       Judith (~0843->0879)

24074499 Ermentrude of Orleans. Born on 27 Sep 0830. Ermentrude died in St. Dervis, France on 6 Oct 0869, she was 39.[161] Buried in St. Denis.

24074502 Count Konrad D'AUXERRE II.[117]

Child:
       12037251       i.       Adelaide

24074512 King of France Louis II "The Stammerer". Born on 1 Nov 0846. Louis died in Compiegne, Oise, France on 10 Apr 0879, he was 32.[162] Occupation: King of West Franks, King of France, Emperor of the West. abt 0868 when Louis was 21, he married Adelaide (Judith). They had the following children:
       12037256       i.       Charles (0879-0929)
       48151123       ii.       Ermentrude

24074513 Adelaide (Judith). Born abt 0855. Adelaide (Judith) died aft 10 Nov 0901, she was 46.[162]

24074514 same as ahnentafel number 12035600

24074515 Elfleda of Wiltshire. Born abt 0878 in Wessex, England. Elfleda died abt 0919, she was 41.[163] Alias/AKA: Aelfleda. Elfleda married King of the West Saxons Edward "The Elder"[125],[126],[127]. They had the following children:
              i.       Edwin (-0933)
              ii.       Elfweard (-~0924)
              iii.       Eadflaed
       12037257       iv.       Eadgifu (Edgiva) (-~0953)
       12037785       v.       Edhilda (Hedwige) (->0965)
              vi.       Eadgyth (-0946)
              vii.       Elfleda
              viii.       Ethelfleda
              ix.       Ethelhilda
              x.       Elgiva

24074516 Otto Duke of Saxony. Born in 0836. Otto died on 30 Nov 0912, he was 76. Otto married Hedwig VON BABENBERG. They had one child:
       12037258       i.       Henry (0876-0936)

24074517 Hedwig VON BABENBERG. Born in 0856. Hedwig died on 24 Dec 0903, she was 47.

24074518 Dietrich VON RINGELHEIM Count of Saxon-Hamelant. Dietrich married Reinhildis Ludmilla. They had one child:
       12037259       i.       Mechtilde (ca0890-0968)

24074519 Reinhildis Ludmilla.

24074674 Giselbert (Gilbert) DE LORRAINE. Giselbert (Gilbert) died in 0939. Giselbert (Gilbert) married Queen of Franks Gerberga of Saxony. They had the following children:
              i.       Gerberga (~0935-)
       12037337       ii.       Alberade

24074675 same as ahnentafel number 6018629

24074680 same as ahnentafel number 3009312
24074681 same as ahnentafel number 3009313

24074682 same as ahnentafel number 6018892
24074683 same as ahnentafel number 6018893

24075308 same as ahnentafel number 12037790
24075309 same as ahnentafel number 12037791

24075310 Robert DE VERMANDOIS Count of Troyes and Meaux.[77] Born abt 0920. Robert died abt 0967, he was 47. Robert married Adelaide DE BURGUNDY de Chalons. They had one child:
       12037655       i.       Adélaïde (0950-~0975)

24075311 Adelaide DE BURGUNDY de Chalons. Born in 0914. Adelaide died in 0967, she was 53.

24075552 Count of Flanders Arnulf I.[106] Born abt 0890. Arnulf died on 27 Mar 0964, he was 74. In 0934 when Arnulf was 44, he married Alix (Alice). They had one child:
       12037776       i.       Baldwin (-0961)

24075553 Alix (Alice). Born abt 0915. Alix (Alice) died in 0958, she was 43.

24075554 Duke of Saxony Hernann BILLING. Child:
       12037777       i.       Matilda (-1008)

24075556 Adalbert D'IVREA. Adalbert died in 0924.[164] Adalbert married Gisele. They had one child:
       12037778       i.       Berengarius (-0966)

24075557 Gisele. Gisele died in 0910.

24075558 Marquis of Tuscany Boso Count of Arles. Born in 0885. Boso died in 0936, he was 51. Boso married Willa DE BURGUNDY. They had one child:
       12037779       i.       Willa

24075559 Willa DE BURGUNDY.

24075560 Richwin Count of Verdun. Richwin married Cunegonde. They had one child:
       12037780       i.       Siegfried (-0998)

24075561 Cunegonde.

24075564 Udo DE GLEIBERG Count of Wetterau. Udo married DE VERMANDOIS. They had one child:
       12037782       i.       Herbert (-0922)

24075565 DE VERMANDOIS.

24075568 King of France Robert I, Count of Paris. Born in 0866 in Bourgogne, France. Robert died in Soissons, France on 15 Jun 0923, he was 57.[165] died in battle. Occupation: Count of Paris & Poitiers; Marquie in Neustria & Orleans. Robert married Beatrix (Beatrice) DE VERMANDOIS. They had the following children:
       12037784       i.       Hugh (-0956)
       48150621       ii.       Liegarde (Hildebrandt) (~0887->0931)

24075569 Beatrix (Beatrice) DE VERMANDOIS. Born in Vermandois, Normandy, France. Beatrix (Beatrice) died aft Mar 0930/931.

24075570 same as ahnentafel number 12035600
24075571 same as ahnentafel number 24074515

24075574 same as ahnentafel number 12035608
24075575 same as ahnentafel number 12035609

24075576 Rotbald D'AVIGNON. Child:
       12037788       i.       Boso (-0965)

24075578 Charles CONSTANTINE Count of Vienne. Born abt 0901. Charles died abt Jan 0962, he was 61.[166] Charles married Teutberg. They had one child:
       12037789       i.       Constance (-~0961)

24075579 Teutberg. Teutberg died abt 0960.[166]

24075580 Count of Anjou Fulk D'ANJOU I, The Red. Born abt 0875 in Anjou, France. Fulk died in St. Martin, Tours, France abt 0923, he was 48. Fulk married Countess of Anjou Roscilla DE LOUCHE. They had one child:
       12037790       i.       Fulk (~0909-0960)

24075581 Countess of Anjou Roscilla DE LOUCHE. Born abt 0874 in France.

24075582 Count of Maine Herve. Born in Maine, France. Herve married unknown. They had one child:
       12037791       i.       Gerberga (~0913-~0952)

24075583 unknown.


26th Generation
----------------------------------------

48142400 King of Wessex Athelwolf.[167],[168] Born abt 0795 in prob. Aachen, France. Athelwolf died on 13 Jan 0858, he was 63.[169] Buried in Steyning, Sussex, England; moved to Winchester Cathedral, Hampshire, England. Alias/AKA: Aethelwulf, Ethelwulf, Athulf.

Ethelwulf was the son of Egbert. He succeeded his father in 839. At Ethelwulf's request, his four sons each became king in turn rather than risk weakness in the kingdom by allowing young children to inherit the mantle of leadership.[76]

Research: ruled between 839 and 858 in Wessex, England. In 855, Aethelwulf went on a pilgrimage to Rome, and not expecting to return, divided his kingdom between his sons Aethelbald and Aethelbert. However, Aethelwulf did in fact return with his 12 year old bride Judith, and resumed kingship of the eastern half of Wessex, while Aethelbald ruled the western half.

Research: Ethelwerd's Chronicle

"After his [Egbert's] death [in 837], Athulf succeeded to the throne of his father Egbert, and he delivered up the kingdom of Kent to his son Athelstan, together with East-Saxony, South-Saxony, and Surrey, i.e. the eastern southern and midland parts.

A. 851. ..... Ceorl duke of Devon fought a battle against the pagans at Wembury, where they slew many of the Danes and gained the victory. In the course of the same year, the barbarians wintered first in the isle of Thanet, which lies not far from Britain, and has fruitful but not large corn fields. That year was not yet finished, when a large fleet of pagans arrived, 350 ships, at the mouth of the river Thames, commonly called Thames-mouth, and destroyed the city of Canterbury and the city of London, and put to flight Berthwilf king of Mercia, having defeated his army. After the battle they returned beyond the river Thames toward the south through the province of Surrey, and there king Ethelwulf with the Western Angles met them: an immense number was slain on both sides, nor have we ever heard of a more severe battle before that day: these things happened near Ockley Wood.

A. 854. After three years king Burhred asked assistance from king Ethelwulf to subdue the Northern Britons: he granted it, and having collected his army, passed through the Mercian kingdom to go against the Britons: whom he subdued and made tributary. In the same year king Ethelwulf sent his son Alfred to Rome, in the days of our lord pope Leo [the Fourth], who consecrated him king and named him his son in baptism, when we are accustomed to name little children, when we receive them from the bishop's hand. In the same year were fought battles in the isle of Thanet against the pagans; and there was a great slaughter made on both sides, and many were drowned in the sea. The same year also after Easter king Ethelwulf gave his daughter in marriage to king Burhred.

A. 855. After a year the pagans wintered in Sheppey. In the same year king Ethelwulf gave the tenth of all his possession to be the Lord's portion, and so appointed it to be in all the government of his kingdom. In the same year he set out to Rome with great dignity, and stayed there twelve months. As he returned home, therefore, to his country, Charles, king of the Franks, gave him his daughter in marriage, and he took her home with him to his own country.

A. 857. Lastly, after a year king Ethelwulf died, and his body reposes in the city of Winchester. Now the aforesaid king was son of king Egbert, and his grandfather was Edmund, his great-grandfether Eafa, his great-grandfather's father was Eoppa, and his great-grandfather's grandfather was Ingild, brother of Ina, king of the Western-Angles, who ended his life in Rome; and the above-named kings derived their origin from king Kenred [= Cenred]. Kenred was the son of Ceolwald, son of Cuthwin, son of Ceawlin, son of Cynric [= Cenric], son of Cerdic, who also was the first possessor of the western parts of Britain, after he had defeated the armies of the Britons; his father was Elesa, son of Esla, son of Gewis, son of Wig, son of Freawin, son of Frithogar, son of Brond, son of Beldeg, son of Woden, son of Frithowald, son of Frealaf, son of Frithuwulf, son of Finn, son of Godwulf, son of Geat, son of Taetwa, son of Beaw, son of Sceldi, son of Sceaf. This Sceaf came with one ship to an island of the ocean named Scani, sheathed in arms, and he was a young boy, and unknown to the people of that land; but he was received by them, and they guarded him as their own with much care, and afterwards chose him for their king. It is from him that king Ethelwulf derives his descent. And then was completed the fiftieth year from the beginning of king Egbert's reign."

--- *The Chronicle of Fabius Ethelwerd, From the Beginning of the World to the Year of Our Lord 975*, translated by J A Giles in *Six Old English Chronicles*, London (Bohn), 1848, p 22-24. From same, p 28: "I will now leave obscurity and begin to speak concerning the sons of Ethelwulf. They were five in number: the first was Ethelstan, who also shared the kingdom with his father: the second was Ethelbald, who also was king of the Western English; the third was Ethelbert, king of Kent: the fourth was Ethelred, who after the death of Ethelbert succeeded to the kingdom, and was also my grandfather's grandfather: the fifth was Alfred, who succeeded after all the others to the whole sovereignty, and was your grandfather's grandfather."

Research: Christopher Brooke in *From Alfred to Henry III, 871-1272*, 1961 (1969),p 32 and 258 says Aethelwulf regined 839-855, and d. 858. Brooke says, p 32: "In 843 'King Aethelwulf [Egbert's son] fought at Carhampton against thirty-five ships' companies, and the Danes had possession of the place of slaughter'; in 855 'the heathen for the first time wintered in Sheppey' ... " Brooke's quotations are apparently from the *Anglo-Saxon Chronicle*.

"In the year of our Lord's incarnation 837 [Giles: "Malmesbury, in following the Saxon Chronicle, is two years earlier than the Northern Chronicles."], Ethelwulf, whom some call Athulf, the son of Egbert, came to the throne, and reigned twenty years and five months. Mild by nature he infinitely preferred a life of tranquillity to dominion over many provinces; and, finally, content with his paternal kingdom, he bestowed all the rest, which his father had subjugated, on his son Ethelstan; of whom it is not known when, or in what manner, he died."
--- William of Malmesbury, *Chronicle of the Kings of England, from the Earliest Period to the Reign of King Stephen*, translated by John Allen Giles, London (Henry G. Bohn) 1847, p 97.

>From the same, p 109-110:
"From this king [Ethelwulf] the English chronicles trace the line of the generation of their kings upwards, even to Adam, as we know Luke the evangelist has done with respect to our Lord Jesus; and which, perhaps, it will not be superfluous for me to do, though it is to be apprehended, that the utterance of barbarous names may shock the ears of persons unused to them. Ethelwulf was son of Egbert, Egbert of Elmund, Elmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa was the son of Ingild, the brother of king Ina, who were both sons of Kenred; Kenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cutha, Cutha of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric of Creoding, Creoding of Cerdic, who was the first king of the West Saxons; Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis, Gewis of Wig, Wig of Freawin, Freawin of Frithogar, Frithogar of Brond, Brond of Beldeg, Beldeg of Woden; and from him, as we have often remarked, proceeded the kings of many nations. Woden was the son of Frithowald, Frithowald of Frealaf, Frealaf of Finn, Finn of Godwulf, Godwulf of Geat, Geat of Taetwa, Taetwa of Beaw, Beaw of Sceldi, Sceldi of Sceaf; who, as some affirm, was driven on a certain island in Germany, called Scamphta, (of which Jornandes, the historian of the Goths, speaks), a little boy in a skiff, without any attendant, asleep, with a handful of corn at his head, whence he was called Sceaf; and, on account of his singular appearance, being well received by the men of that country, and carefully educated, in his riper age he reigned in a town which was called Slaswic, but at present Haitheby; which country, called old Anglia, whence the Angles came into Britain, is situated between the Saxons and the Gioths [sic, with an "i"]. Sceaf was the son of Heremod, Heremod of Itermon, Itermon of Hathra, Hathra of Guala, Guala of Bedwig, Bedwig of Streaf, and he, as they say, was the
son of Noah, born in the Ark."
[Footnote by Giles: "A similar list of the genealogy of the West Saxon kings, will be found in the Saxon Chronicle, A.D. 855."]

"In the year of our Lord 857, the two sons of Ethelwulf divided their paternal kingdom; Ethelbald reigned in West Saxony, and Ethelbert in Kent. [Footnote by Giles: "Malmesbury's Chronology to the accession of Edward the Elder, is a year later than the Saxon Chronicle, Asser, and Florence of Worcester. His computation rests on fixing the death of Ethelwulf in 857, who went to Rome in 855, stayed there a year, and died in the second year after his return. Allowing ten years for Ethelbald and Ethelbert, it brings the accession of Ethelred to 867, and five years added to this give 872 for Alfred's accession. After the death of Ethelbald Judith returned to France. She left no children; but marrying afterwards Baldwin, count of Flanders, she bore him Matilda, wife of William the Conqueror. [WRONG!]"] Ethelbald, base and perfidious, defiled the bed of his father, by marrying, after his decease, Judith his step-mother. Dying, however, at the end of five years, and being interred at Sherborne, the whole government devolved upon his brother. ..... Ethelbert, having ruled the kingdom with vigour and with mildness, paid the debt of nature after five years, and was buried at Sherborne. (P) In the year of our Lord 867, Ethelred, the son of Ethelwulf, obtained his paternal kingdom, and ruled it for the same number of years as his brothers. ..... Ethelred, worn down with numberless labours, died and was buried at Wimborne."
--- William of Malmesbury, *Chronicle of the Kings of England*, 1125, tr John Allen Giles, 1847, p 110-112 passim. In this passage, referring to battles with the Danes during the reign of Ethelred, William of Malmesbury says: "In these several actions the Danes lost nine earls and one king, besides common people innumerable." Of the battle of Eschendun in particular, he says: "Here fell Oseg their king, five earls, and an innumerable multitude of common people." According to Giles, Eschendun is: "Supposed Aston, near Wallingford, Berks. Others think Ashendon in Bucks. The Latin and Saxon names, *Mons Fraxini*, and Eschen-dun, seem to favour the latter." (p 111)

In 0830 when Athelwolf was 35, he married Osburh (Osburga) of Wessex. They had the following children:
              i.       Athelbald (-0860)
              ii.       Athelswith
              iii.       Athelbert (-0865)
              iv.       Athelred (~0837-0871)
       24071200       v.       Alfred (~0847-0899)
              vi.       Athelstan

48142401 Osburh (Osburga) of Wessex. Osburh (Osburga) died abt 0852.

48142402 Æthelred Ældorman of the Gain. Æthelred married Ædburh of Mercia. They had one child:
       24071201       i.       Eahlswith (-0902)

48142403 Ædburh of Mercia.

48142432 Eystein IVARSSON Earl of the Uplanders.[91] Born abt 0800 in Maer, Norway.[170] Alias/AKA: Glumra. Eystein married Aseda RAGNALDSDOTTIR. They had the following children:
       24071216       i.       Ragnald (~0830-0890)
              ii.       Sigurd (-0892)

48142433 Aseda RAGNALDSDOTTIR. Alias/AKA: RAGNVALDATTER.

48142434 Hrolf NEFIA. Born abt 0823 in Maer, Norway.[156] Alias/AKA: Rolv, Ralph; NEVJA. Child:
       24071217       i.       Ragnhild (ca0848-)

48142436 Count of Senlis Pepin DE PERONNE. Born abt 0817 in Vermandois, Normandy, France.[171] Pepin died in Milan, Italy in 0892, he was 75.[172] Occupation: Count of Senlis, Peronne, St. Quentin and Vermandois; Prince of Italy. Pepin married unknown. They had the following children:
       48151130       i.       Herbert (0840-0902)
       24071218       ii.       Pepin (~0847-0893)

48142437 unknown.

48142448 King of Sjaelland Frodo (Frotho). Frodo (Frotho) died in 0885.[131],[173] Child:
       24071224       i.       Harald (-0899)

48148994 Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I.[174] Born abt 0795. Lothair died in l'Abbaye de Prum, Eifel, Germany on 29 Sep 0855, he was 60.[175] Occupation: Emperor of the West 840-855.[176] Research: Emperor 840-855. On 15 Oct 0821 when Lothair was 26, he married Ermengarde DE TOURS. They had the following children:
       24074497       i.       Ermengarde
       96302234       ii.       Lothair (0827-0869)
              iii.       Charles (-0863)
       192604626       iv.       Louis (~0823-0855)

48148995 Ermengarde DE TOURS. Ermengarde died on 20 Mar 0851.[177] Buried in Erstein Abbey, Strasbourg, Alsace, France.

48148996 Holy Roman Emperor Louis I "The Debonair/Pious".[178],[179] Born in Aug 0778 in Herbstain-Chasserveuil, France. Louis died in Bur at Metz on 20 Jun 0840, he was 61.[180] Occupation: King of Aquitaine 781, Emperor of the West, 814-840. In Feb 0819 when Louis was 40, he married Judith of Bavaria. They had the following children:
       96298071       i.       Gisele (0825->0874)
       24074498       ii.       Charles (0823-0877)
              iii.       Bertha

48148997 Judith of Bavaria. Born in 0805 in Bavaria, Germany. Judith died in Tours, France on 19 Apr 0843, she was 38.[181]

48149024 same as ahnentafel number 24074498
48149025 same as ahnentafel number 24074499

48149030 Athelhelm Ealdorman of Wiltshire. Child:
       24074515       i.       Elfleda (~0878-~0919)

48149032 Liudolf Duke of Saxony. Liudolf married Oda. They had one child:
       24074516       i.       Otto (0836-0912)

48149033 Oda.

48149034 Henry VON BABENBERG. Born in 0830. Henry died in near Paris, France on 28 Aug 0886, he was 56. died in battle. Alias/AKA: Heinrich. Henry married Ingeltrude DE FRIULI. They had one child:
       24074517       i.       Hedwig (0856-0903)

48149035 Ingeltrude DE FRIULI. Born ca 0840. Ingeltrude died on 2 Apr 0870, she was 30.

48149348 same as ahnentafel number 12037248
48149349 same as ahnentafel number 12037249

48150620 Count Herbert DE VERMANDOIS II. Born abt 0884 in Vermandois, Normandy, France. Herbert died in St Quentin, Aisne, France on 23 Feb 0943, he was 59.[182] Buried in St Quentin, Aisne, France. Occupation: Count of Vermandois and Troyes.[183] Herbert married Liegarde (Hildebrandt) Princess of West Franks. They had the following children:
       24075310       i.       Robert (~0920-~0967)
              ii.       Luitgard (Luitgarde) (~0915->0978)
              iii.       Albert (~0920-0987)
              iv.       Alix (Alice) (-0960)

48150621 Liegarde (Hildebrandt) Princess of West Franks. Born abt 0887 in Vermandois, Normandy, France. Liegarde (Hildebrandt) died aft Mar 0931, she was 44.[165]

48150622 Count Giselbert DE BURGUNDY. Born in 0890. Giselbert died in 0956, he was 66. Giselbert married Ermengarde DE BURGUNDY. They had one child:
       24075311       i.       Adelaide (0914-0967)

48150623 Ermengarde DE BURGUNDY.

48151104 Count of Flanders Baldwin II. Born abt 0865. Baldwin died on 2 Jan 0918, he was 53. In 0884 when Baldwin was 19, he married Elfrida of Wessex[116],[51]. They had the following children:
       24075552       i.       Arnulf (~0890-0964)
              ii.       Arnold (~0890-0964)

48151105 Elfrida of Wessex.[116],[51] Elfrida died on 7 Jun 0929. Alias/AKA: Aelfthryth, Aelftrude, Alfthryth.

48151114 King of Italy Berengarius. Born in 0850. Berengarius died on 7 Apr 0924, he was 74. In 0899 when Berengarius was 49, he married Bertila. They had one child:
       24075557       i.       Gisele (-0910)

48151115 Bertila.

48151116 Theobald (Thibault) D'ARLES Count of Arles. Theobald (Thibault) died abt 0890.[184] abt 0879 Theobald (Thibault) married Bertha. They had the following children:
       24075558       i.       Boso (0885-0936)
              ii.       Teutberga (-<0948)
              iii.       Hugh (-0947)

48151117 Bertha. Born in 0863. Bertha died on 8 Mar 0924/925, she was 61.[184] Buried in Santa Maria, Lucca, Italy.

48151118 Rudolph DE BURGUNDY. Child:
       24075559       i.       Willa

48151123 Ermentrude.

Child:
       24075561       i.       Cunegonde

48151130 Count Herbert DE VERMANDOIS I. Born in 0840 in Vermandois, Normandy, France. Herbert died in 0902, he was 62.[185] Occupation: Count of Vermandois and Soissons; Seigneur de Senlis, Peronne and St. Quentin. Herbert married Bertha DE MORVOIS[186]. They had the following children:
       48150620       i.       Herbert (~0884-0943)
       24075569       ii.       Beatrix (Beatrice) (->0930)
       24075565       iii.       UNNAMED

48151131 Bertha DE MORVOIS.[186] Born abt 0862 in France.

48151136 Count of Wormgau Rupert (Robert) IV, The Strong.[91] Born in Neustria. Rupert (Robert) died on 15 Sep 0866. abt 0864 Rupert (Robert) married Adelaide. They had one child:
       24075568       i.       Robert (0866-0923)

48151137 Adelaide. Born abt 0819 in Tours, Alsace, France. Adelaide died abt 0866, she was 47.

48151138 same as ahnentafel number 48151130
48151139 same as ahnentafel number 48151131

48151156 King of Provence & Italy Louis DE PROVENCE "The Blind". Louis died on 5 Jun 0928.[187] Louis married Anna. They had one child:
       24075578       i.       Charles (~0901-~0962)

48151157 Anna. Born in 0886. Anna died abt 0914, she was 28.[188]

48151160 Count of Orleans Ingelgarius D'ANJOU. Born abt 0845 in Anjou, France. Ingelgarius died in St. Martin, Tours, France abt 0893, he was 48. Ingelgarius married Adelinde D'AMBOISE.

They had one child:
       24075580       i.       Fulk (~0875-~0923)

48151161 Adelinde D'AMBOISE.

48151162 Lord Garnier DE LOUCHE. Child:
       24075581       i.       Roscilla (~0874-)


27th Generation
----------------------------------------

96284800 King of West Saxons Egbert.[189],[190],[191] Born abt 0775. Egbert died in Wessex, England aft 19 Nov 0838, he was 63.[192]

As King of Wessex, Egbert inherited the mantle of 'bretwalda' - an Anglo-Saxon term meaning a ruler with overall superiority to other rulers - after the decline of Mercian power under Offa. He came to power in 802 and died in 839, but little else is known about his brief reign.[76] Egbert married Eadburh. They had the following children:
       48142400       i.       Athelwolf (~0795-0858)
              ii.       Athelstan

96284801 Eadburh.

96284802 Royal Cup Bearer Oslac of Hampshire.[77] Child:
       48142401       i.       Osburh (Osburga) (-~0852)

96284864 Ivar OPLAENDINGE Of The Uplands.[91] Born in Norway. Ivar married Ascrida RAGNVALDSDOTTIR. They had one child:
       48142432       i.       Eystein (~0800-)

96284865 Ascrida RAGNVALDSDOTTIR.

96284866 Rognvald OLAFSSON. Born abt 0790 in Jutland, Norway.[193] Rognvald died in 0850, he was 60.[193] Rognvald married unknown. They had one child:
       48142433       i.       Aseda

96284867 unknown.

96284872 King of Italy Bernhard (Bernard). Born in 0797. Bernhard (Bernard) died in Milan, Italy on 7 Apr 0818, he was 21.[171],[194] Buried in Milan, Italy. Research: King of Italy 810-818. Bernhard (Bernard) married Cunigunde (Cunegonde). They had one child:
       48142436       i.       Pepin (~0817-0892)

96284873 Cunigunde (Cunegonde). Cunigunde (Cunegonde) died on 15 Jun 0835.[171],[194]

96284896 King of Sjaelland Canute "Harthacanute". Canute died in 0884.[131],[195] Child:
       48142448       i.       Frodo (Frotho) (-0885)

96297988 same as ahnentafel number 48148996

96297989 Ermangarde DE HESBAYE. Ermangarde died in 0818. Ermangarde married Holy Roman Emperor Louis I "The Debonair/Pious"[178],[179]. They had the following children:
       48148994       i.       Lothair (~0795-0855)
              ii.       Pepin
              iii.       Louis (~0805-0876)
              iv.       Adelaide

96297990 Hugh D'ALSACE Count of Tours. Hugh married Ava. They had the following children:
       48148995       i.       Ermengarde (-0851)
              ii.       Adèlaïde (->0866)

96297991 Ava.

96297992 King of France Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor.[196],[197] Born on 2 Apr 0742 in Ingelheim, Aachen, Germany. Charlemagne died in Aix-La-Chapelle, France on 28 Jan 0813/814, he was 70. Occupation: King of France, 768-814, Emperor of the West, 25 Dec 800. Alias/AKA: Charles the Great, Carolus Magnus, Charles I , Charles le Grand, Karl der Grosse.

Research: lineage to this point provided to me by Mr. Don Robbins of Venice, FL; October 2000
Coronated on Christmas Day, 800 A.D. by Pope Leo III[198]

As king of the Franks, Charlemagne conquered the Lombard kingdom in Italy, subdued the Saxons, annexed Bavaria to his kingdom, fought campaigns in Spain and Hungary, and, with the exception of the Kingdom of Asturias in Spain, southern Italy, and the British Isles, united in one superstate practically all the Christian lands of western Europe. In 800 he assumed the title of emperor. (He is reckoned as Charles I of the Holy Roman Empire, as well as Charles I of France.) Besides expanding its political power, he also brought about a cultural renaissance in his empire. Although this imperium survived its founder by only one generation, the medieval kingdoms of France and Germany derived all their constitutional traditions from Charles's monarchy. Throughout medieval Europe, the person of Charles was considered the prototype of a Christian king and emperor.

In accordance with old Frankish custom, the kingdom was divided on Pippin's death in 768 between his two sons. It was not long, however, before a strong rivalry sprang up between the brothers: with his mother's support, Charles concluded, with the Lombard king Desiderius, whose daughter he married, and with his cousin Duke Tassilo of Bavaria, alliances directed against Carloman.

On Carloman's sudden death in 771, Charles was able to make himself sole ruler of the kingdom, unopposed by his young nephews, whose rights he ignored. When Carloman's widow with her children and a few remaining supporters had fled to the Lombard court, and King Desiderius, breaking his alliance with Charles, put pressure on the pope to anoint Carloman's sons as Frankish kings, Charles was forced to come to the aid of Pope Adrian I . He marched on the Lombard capital, Pavia, and after its fall made himself king of the Lombards. His brother's sons, who had fallen into his hands, disappeared. While the siege of Pavia was still in progress, Charles journeyed to Rome, where he celebrated Easter 774 with the pope and reiterated, in St. Peter's Basilica, his father's promise to transfer to papal rule large sections of Italy. But he actually enlarged the pope's lands only slightly, assuming for himself the sovereignty over the entire Lombard kingdom.

Charles had fought the pagan Saxons, in what is now Lower Saxony and Westphalia, in retribution for their attacks on the lower Rhine region, as early as 772, before the first Italian campaign. From 775 on, however, it was his goal to subdue the whole Saxon tribe, converting it to Christianity and integrating it into his kingdom. This aim appeared to have been realized after several campaigns culminating in declarations of allegiance by the Saxon nobility and mass baptisms performed in 775-777. A diet held in 777 in Paderborn sealed the submission of the Saxons. Among those attending the diet had been some Arab emissaries from northern Spain who sought Charles's aid in their uprising against the Umayyad emir of Cordoba. In the summer of 778 Charles advanced into Spain and laid siege to Saragossa, without, however, being able to take the city. Retreating across the Pyrenees, the Frankish army was badly mauled by the Basques. Roland, warden of the Breton march, who died on this occasion, was later immortalized in legend and poetry.

This defeat marks the end of the first period of Charles's rule, the period of vigorous expansion. Within a decade he had become the sole ruler of the Franks, conquered the Lombard kingdom, visited Rome, subdued the Saxons, and invaded Spain. Henceforth he was concerned with defending and safeguarding his quickly won gains (which were to be extended only on the right bank of the Rhine), while consolidating the state internally and protecting cultural life and the rule of law.

Not long after Charles's defeat in Spain, the Saxons rose up once more. The war against them became the longest and most cruel war fought by the Franks. In Charles's eyes, the resistance of this people that had undergone baptism and signed a treaty of allegiance amounted to political high treason and religious apostasy. These offenses called for severe punishment, and 4,500 Saxons were reported to have been executed en masse in 782. New outbreaks occurred after 792, and the last Saxons were not vanquished until 804. Between 772 and 804, Charles took the field against the Saxons no fewer than 18 times. In the end he carried out his aim of not only subjecting them to his rule but also incorporating them fully into his empire. Given the indissoluble tie between temporal power and the Christian faith, this meant they had to be converted. But the violent methods by which this missionary task was carried out had been unknown to the earlier Middle Ages, and the sanguinary punishment meted out to those who broke canon law or continued to engage in pagan practices called forth criticism in Charles's own circle-for example, by Alcuin, his adviser and head of his palace school.

When, in 788, Charles deposed his cousin Duke Tassilo III of Bavaria, who had acknowledged the Frankish kings as feudal lords, he in effect deprived of its independence the last of the German tribes beyond the Rhine. The Bavarians, who had long been Christians, were now directly integrated into the empire. The West Germanic tribes of the Alemanni, Bavarians, Saxons, and Thuringians thus found themselves for the first time gathered into one political unit. Charles's conquests on the right bank of the Rhine were, however, not limited to the Germanic tribes. Making Ratisbon (Regensburg), the residence of the Bavarian dukes, his base, he conducted several campaigns, partly under his own command, against the Avar kingdom (in modern Hungary and Upper Austria). The remaining Avar principalities and the newly founded Slav states of the Danubian region drifted into a loose dependence on the Franks, whose sovereignty they more or less acknowledged.

The gigantic expansion of the Frankish state, raising it far above the tribal states of the early Middle Ages, entailed qualitative as well as quantitative changes. Yet the idea of bestowing on Charles the Roman title of emperor arose only at a very late stage and out of a specific political constellation. While the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire laid claim to universal recognition, the popes, constitutionally still subjects of Byzantium, were opposed to the iconoclastic religious policies of the Eastern emperors. Moreover, under the protection of Charles, Pope Adrian sought to erect an autonomous domain over central Italy, the more so as the Byzantines, abandoning for all practical purposes Rome and Ravenna, were asserting their rule only in Sicily and the southernmost edge of Italy. The papacy's desire for independence found a significant expression in the Donation of Constantine , a forgery dating probably from the first few years of Adrian's reign and purporting to legitimize these papal aims in the name of the first Christian emperor, Constantine I the Great. Charles paid a second visit to Rome in 781, when he had the pope crown his young sons Pippin and Louis as kings of the Lombards and Aquitanians and gained de facto recognition of his Italian position from the Byzantine empress Irene , the mother of Constantine VI. The entente that existed between Charles and Byzantium came to an end after a Frankish attack on southern Italy in 787.

In the end, local Roman conflicts brought about the clarification of the city's constitutional position. In May 799, Pope Leo III was waylaid in Rome by personal enemies. He took refuge at the court of Charles, who had him conducted back to the city and who in November 800 came to Rome himself, where he was received with imperial honours. Before Charles and a synod, Pope Leo cleared himself under oath of the charges made by his enemies. During Christmas mass in St. Peter's, the Romans acclaimed Charles emperor, whereupon the pope crowned and perhaps anointed him.

The imperial title was by nature a Roman dignity. While the acclamation represented the juridically conclusive act, it was the coronation at the hands of the pope that, though of no constitutional importance, was to acquire for the Franks great significance. The pope had been determined to make Charles emperor, deciding to a large extent the outward form; yet Charles was surely not surprised by these events. His famous statement quoted by one of his favourites, the Frankish historian Einhard, that he would not have set foot in church that Christmas if he had known the pope's intention, implies a criticism of the ceremony initiated by the pope, as well as a formal expression of humility. The crowning had been preceded by negotiations. While Charles's imperial rank was legally substantiated by the fact of his dominion over the western part of the old Roman Empire, the desire to counteract the petticoat rule of the empress Irene (who had dethroned and blinded her son in 797) also played a role. Residing in Rome four months and pronouncing sentence on the pope's enemies as rebels guilty of lese majesty, Charles grasped the imperial reins with a firm hand. Likewise, after his return to Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), he promulgated laws in full consciousness of his rank as emperor.

Byzantium braced itself for the usurper's attack, but Charles merely wished to see his new rank and his dominion over Rome recognized in negotiations; he gained his point in 812 when the emperor Michael I acknowledged him as emperor, though not as emperor of the Romans. While the imperial title did not bring Charles any additional powers, his control of Rome was now legitimized, and the estrangement of the papacy from Byzantium and its rapprochement with the Franks, a major historical event that had been initiated in 754, was rendered incontrovertible. A significant result of this development was the tradition to which Charles's assumption of the imperial title and function gave rise: all medieval concepts of empire and all the bonds between the constitutional traditions of the Franks and the later Holy Roman Empire with the Roman Empire founded by Augustus were based on the precedent of Charles's imperial title and position.


Court and administration
The creation of the empire was chiefly legitimized by Charles's efforts to raise its cultural level internally. When Charles came to power, the Frankish kingdom's cultural, administrative, and legal institutions were still relatively undeveloped. The Frankish king, for example, possessed no permanent residence. In the summer months he traveled about, deciding political issues and dispensing justice in assemblies of spiritual and temporal lords; above all, summer was the season for military campaigns. During the winter, from Christmas to Easter and sometimes longer, the king lived and held court at one of the imperial palaces. Charles especially favoured those situated in the Frankish heartland: only rarely did he spend the winter in one of the newly won territories, in encampment in Saxony, in Ratisbon, or in Rome. Not until 794 did Aachen , which the aging monarch liked because of its warm springs, become the court's abode, indeed almost a residence, during every winter and often even in summer. Here Charles built, partially with materials imported from Rome and Ravenna, the court church that is still standing, as well as the palace whose walls were incorporated into the 14th-century city hall.

Charles's court consisted of his family, of the clergy in his personal service, who were called the king's capella, and of temporal officials, among them the count palatine, the seneschal, and the master of the royal household. These men were occasionally joined, on an informal basis, by other spiritual or temporal men of rank who spent some time in the ruler's presence. For Charles had the ambition to make his court the intellectual, as well as the political and administrative, centre of the realm and accordingly summoned prominent scholars from all parts of the empire and even from abroad. Among these the most important were Einhard and Alcuin.

With the help of these and other literary men, Charles established a court library containing the works of the Church Fathers and those of ancient authors, and he founded a court academy for the education of young Frankish knights. Last but not least, he himself took part with his family and the learned and lay members of his entourage in a cultivated social life that afforded him entertainment no less than instruction. His mother tongue was an Old High German idiom, besides which he presumably understood the Old French dialect spoken by many Franks; as a grown man, he also learned Latin and some Greek, had historical and theological writings, including St. Augustine's City of God, read aloud to him, and acquired a rudimentary knowledge of mathematics and astronomy.

The court's cultural interests, however, extended beyond the intellectual gratification of a small circle, such as the exchange of verses and letters. Efforts were also made to raise the level of religious observance, morality, and the process of justice throughout the empire. The clearest and most famous instance of this was the Epistula de litteris colendis, dating presumably from 784 to 785 and compiled in Charles's name by Alcuin . Its main argument lies in the assertion that the right faith-indeed, every right thought-must be clothed in the appropriate form and language, lest it be falsified; hence, the prescription of intensive study of Latin language and literature for all monastic and cathedral schools. The spiritual nd literary movement called the "Carolingian renaissance" had many centres, especially in the empire's monasteries; but it cannot be evaluated without reference to Charles's court and to his endeavour to call on the best minds of the whole world, setting them to work in the education of the clergy and, in the final instance, of the whole people. The court's theological knowledge and intellectual self-confidence are reflected in the Libri Carolini, a comprehensive treatise written about 791 in Charles's name and directed against the Council of Nicaea (787), at which Greeks and papal plenipotentiaries had countenanced the practice of iconolatry; at the same time, the Libri Carolini did not spare the iconoclasts.

Through this court, Charles ruled and administered his empire and dispensed justice. Once or twice a year at least, the court and the chief magistrates and nobles from all parts of the empire joined in a general assembly held either in the Frankish heartland or in one of the conquered territories. It is indicative of the unique structure of the Carolingian Empire that one cannot draw clear distinctions between an assembly of the armed forces, a constitutional assembly of the nobility, and a church synod: juridical, military, and ecclesiastical affairs were invariably discussed at one and the same time by the representatives of the nobility and the clergy. Above them all towered the figure of Charlemagne.

On the local level the ruler was represented in every region by counts and bishops. Liaison between these personages and the court was maintained through royal messengers who travelled about at Charles's command, usually in pairs made up of a civil servant and a clerical dignitary. Royal commands did not have to be written out, although Charles's decrees (capitularies) increasingly came to be recorded in writing, at first rather imprecisely, in the last two decades of his reign; the forms coined by the "renaissance" gained ground only with time. Charles respected the traditional rights of the various peoples and tribes under his dominion as a matter of principle, and, after he became emperor, he had many of them recorded. The capitularies served partly as complements to tribal laws, partly as regulations applying to the most disparate aspects of public and private life, and in part also as specific instructions issued to royal messengers, counts, bishops, and others. Punitive decrees against highwaymen, dispositions concerning military levies, and orders for the people to take an oath of allegiance to the emperor or to teach all Christians to recite the Lord's Prayer are found intermingled in the capitularies with jurisdictional dispositions and regulations about the internal organization of monasteries; temporal and spiritual problems are rarely treated separately. Taken as a whole, the legal documents of Charles's reign bear witness to a great concern, born of profound moral and religious convictions, with the administration of justice and with public enlightenment, but they also show discrepancies between the ideal and reality.

Charles's organization of the empire was, however, not without its defects and limitations. The sovereign's power was restricted only by theoretical principles of law and custom, not by institutions or countervailing forces. Significantly, the records report little about opposition movements and conspiracies, which, in fact, did exist. A rebellion that Thuringian counts launched against Charles in 786 can perhaps be explained as ethnic opposition to the centralism of the Franks. More ominous was an aristocratic conspiracy that in 792 attempted to place on the throne the hunchback Pippin, Charles's only son from his first marriage, which was later declared invalid; yet here, too, the political concepts and motives remain unknown. These events and, more clearly still, the history of the empire under Charles's successor, Louis, show the extent to which the political system had been designed for one person on whose outstanding abilities everything depended and with whose disappearance it threatened to collapse. Their self-confidence enhanced by Charles's educational policy, the clergy could not accept for all time his theocracy without opposing it with their own political and religious principles. The temporal nobility that had built the empire with the Carolingians could be firmly tied to the dynasty only as long as new conquests held out the prospect of new spoils and fiefs; if these failed to materialize, there remained only the care of one's properties in the different regions and the hope of gaining advantages from party strife. External expansion, however, could not advance substantially beyond the borders reached by 800; in fact, economic and technical resources were insufficient to hold together and administer what had already been won and to defend it against foreign enemies. Charles's empire lacked the means by which the Romans had preserved theirs: a money economy, a paid civil service, a standing army, a properly maintained network of roads and communications, a navy for coastal defense. Already in Charles's lifetime, the coasts were being threatened by the Normans. In 806 Charles planned a division of the empire between his sons, but after the death of the elder two he crowned Louis of Aquitaine his coemperor and sole successor at Aachen in 813. It was only a few months later that Charles himself died there in 814.


Personality and influence
Charlemagne's posthumous fame shone the more brightly as the following generations were unable to preserve the empire's internal peace, its unity, and its international position. Even after the Carolingian dynasty had become extinct, political tradition in the East Frankish (German) kingdom and empire, as well as in the West Frankish (French) kingdom, drew sustenance from the example set by Charlemagne. Under Otto I, Aachen became the city in which the rulers of Germany were crowned, and, at Frederick I Barbarossa's request, the antipope Paschal III canonized Charlemagne in 1165. In France the Capetians, beginning with Philip II Augustus, revived the traditions that had grown up around Charlemagne. The controversial question whether the Germans or the French were the true successors of Charlemagne was kept alive through the Middle Ages and into modern times. Napoleon called himself Charlemagne's successor; after the end of World War II, discussions of a united, Christian, "occidental" Europe invoked his model. Hand in hand with these political traditions went those in popular legend and poetry, culminating in the Roland epics. Nor did Charlemagne's fame stop at the boundaries of what was once his empire; some Slavic languages derived their term for "king" from his name (e.g., Czech: kr l; Polish: kr¢l).

Charles left no biographical document; his personality can be constructed only from his deeds and the reports left by contemporaries. This is how Einhard, who lived at the court from about 795 on, described Charlemagne's character and appearance in his famous Vita Karoli Magni:

He had a broad and strong body of unusual height, but well-proportioned; for his height measured seven times his feet. His skull was round, the eyes were lively and rather large, the nose of more than average length, the hair gray but full, the face friendly and cheerful. Seated or standing, he thus made a dignified and stately impression even though he had a thick, short neck and a belly that protruded somewhat; but this was hidden by the good proportions of the rest of his figure. He strode with firm step and held himself like a man; he spoke with a higher voice than one would have expected of someone of his build. He enjoyed good health except for being repeatedly plagued by fevers four years before his death. Toward the end he dragged one foot.

The strength of Charlemagne's personality was evidently rooted in the unbroken conviction of being at one with the divine will. Without inward contradiction, he was able to combine personal piety with enjoyment of life, a religious sense of mission with a strong will to power, rough manners with a striving for intellectual growth, and intransigence against his enemies with rectitude. In his politically conditioned religiosity, the empire and the church grew into an institutional and spiritual unit. Although his empire survived him by only one generation, it contributed decisively to the eventual reconstitution, in the mind of a western Europe fragmented since the end of the Roman Empire, of a common intellectual, religious, and political inheritance on which later centuries could draw. Charlemagne did not create this inheritance single-handedly, but one would be hard put to imagine it without him. One of the poets at his court called him rex pater Europae-"King father of Europe." In truth, there is no other man who similarly left his mark on European history during the centuries of the Middle Ages.[130]

In 0771 when Charlemagne was 28, he married Hildegarde VON LINZGAU of Swabia, in Aachen, Rhineland, Germany.[199] They had the following children:
       385192283       i.       Alpais
              ii.       Charles (-0811)
              iii.       Rotrudia
              iv.       Gisela
              v.       Heldecardia
              vi.       Adelheida
              vii.       Bellinandra
              viii.       Gertruda
              ix.       Emma
       192569744       x.       Pepin (0773-0810)
       48148996       xi.       Louis (0778-0840)

96297993 Hildegarde VON LINZGAU of Swabia. Born in 0758. Hildegarde died in Bur at Metz on 30 Apr 0783, she was 25.[199]

96297994 Duke of Bavaria Welf I. Welf died aft 0833.[181] Alias/AKA: Guelph. Welf married Eigilwich (Heilwig)[200]. They had the following children:
       48148997       i.       Judith (0805-0843)
              ii.       Emma (-0876)
              iii.       Conrad (-0862)

96297995 Eigilwich (Heilwig).[200]

96298070 Eberhard DE FRIULI Margrave of Friuli. Eberhard died on 16 Dec 0866.[201] Buried in Cysoing. bef 0840 Eberhard married Gisele D'AQUITAINE. They had the following children:
       48151114       i.       Berengarius (0850-0924)
       48149035       ii.       Ingeltrude (ca0840-0870)
              iii.       Unroch (-0874)

96298071 Gisele D'AQUITAINE. Born in 0825. Gisele died aft 1 Jul 0874, she was 49.[202] Buried in Cysoing.

96301240 same as ahnentafel number 48151130
96301241 same as ahnentafel number 48151131

96301242 same as ahnentafel number 24075568
96301243 same as ahnentafel number 24075569

96301246 Richard DE BURGUNDY. Richard married Adelheid (Adelaide) DE BURGUNDY. They had one child:
       48150623       i.       Ermengarde

96301247 Adelheid (Adelaide) DE BURGUNDY.

96302208 Count of Flanders Baldwin I.[74],[75] Baldwin died in 0879 in Arras. In 0862 Baldwin married Judith of France (West Franks)[203]. They had one child:
       48151104       i.       Baldwin (~0865-0918)

96302209 Judith of France (West Franks).[203] Born abt 0843. Judith died aft 0879, she was 36.

96302210 same as ahnentafel number 24071200
96302211 same as ahnentafel number 24071201

96302228 same as ahnentafel number 96298070
96302229 same as ahnentafel number 96298071

96302234 King of Lorraine Lothair II "The Saxon".[204] Born in 0827.[205] Lothair died on 8 Aug 0869, he was 42.[206] Buried in Saint Anthony Abbey, Plaisance. In 0862 when Lothair was 35, he married Waldrada. They had one child:
       48151117       i.       Bertha (0863-0924)

96302235 Waldrada.

96302246 same as ahnentafel number 24074512
96302247 same as ahnentafel number 24074513

96302260 same as ahnentafel number 48142436
96302261 same as ahnentafel number 48142437

96302262 Count of Morvois Guerri DE MORVOIS.[207] Guerri married Eve DE ROUSILLON. They had one child:
       48151131       i.       Bertha (~0862-)

96302263 Eve DE ROUSILLON.

96302272 Count of Wormgau Robert III. Robert died abt 0834. Robert married Wialdruth. They had one child:
       48151136       i.       Rupert (Robert) (-0866)

96302273 Wialdruth.

96302274 Count of Alsace Hugh D'ALSACE III. Hugh died abt 0839.[208] Hugh married Bava. They had one child:
       48151137       i.       Adelaide (~0819-~0866)

96302275 Bava.

96302312 King of Provence Boso DE PROVENCE. In 0876 Boso married Ermengarde. They had one child:
       48151156       i.       Louis (-0928)

96302313 Ermengarde. Born abt 0855. Ermengarde died in 0897, she was 42.[209]

96302314 Emperor of Byzantium Leo VI. Born on 1 Sep 0866. Leo died on 12 May 0912, he was 45.[210] In 0898 when Leo was 31, he married Zoë TZAUTZINA.[210] They had one child:
       48151157       i.       Anna (0886-~0914)

96302315 Zoë TZAUTZINA.

96302320 Tertulle D'ANJOU. Born abt 0821 in Rennes, Anjou, France. Tertulle married Petronilla D'ANJOU. They had one child:
       48151160       i.       Ingelgarius (~0845-~0893)

96302321 Petronilla D'ANJOU.


28th Generation
----------------------------------------

192569600 King of Kent Eahlmund.[116],[191],[211] Born abt 0758. Eahlmund died aft 0786, he was 28. Child:
       96284800       i.       Egbert (~0775->0838)

192569728 Halfdan The Old. Halfdan married unknown. They had one child:
       96284864       i.       Ivar

192569729 unknown.

192569730 Ragnvald.

Child:
       96284865       i.       Ascrida

192569732 Olaf GUDRODSSON. Born abt 0770 in Norway.[212] Olaf died in 0840, he was 70.[212] Olaf married unknown. They had the following children:
       96284866       i.       Rognvald (~0790-0850)
              ii.       Heigi

192569733 unknown.

192569744 King of Lombardy Pepin "The Hunchback". Born in Apr 0773 in Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia.[171] Pepin died in Milan, Italy on 8 Jul 0810, he was 37. Research: King of Italy 781-810. Pepin married Bertha DE TOULOUSE. They had one child:
       96284872       i.       Bernhard (Bernard) (0797-0818)

192569745 Bertha DE TOULOUSE. Born in France.

192569792 King of Danes Sigurd (Snogoje) "Dragon Eye". Sigurd (Snogoje) died in 0873.[131],[213]

Child:
       96284896       i.       Canute (-0884)

192595978 Duke Ingeramne DE HESBAYE.

Child:
       96297989       i.       Ermangarde (-0818)

192595984 King of Franks Pepin "The Short". Born in 0714. Pepin died on 24 Sep 0768, he was 54.[214] Occupation: Mayor of the Palace, 1st King of the Franks from 751 to 768.[215] Pepin married Bertrada DE LEON "Large Foot". They had the following children:
       96297992       i.       Charlemagne (0742-0813)
              ii.       Carloman[138]

192595985 Bertrada DE LEON "Large Foot". Born in 0719. Bertrada died on 12 Jul 0783, she was 64.[171]

192595986 Count Gerold VON ANGLACHAU.[217] Gerold married Emma VON ALEMAGNA (ALAMANNIA). They had one child:
       96297993       i.       Hildegarde (0758-0783)

192595987 Emma VON ALEMAGNA (ALAMANNIA). Emma died in 0798.[218]

192596140 Margrave Hunroch DE FRIULI. Hunroch died bef 0854.[202] Hunroch married Engeltron[202],[219]. They had one child:
       96298070       i.       Eberhard (-0866)

192596141 Engeltron.[202],[219]

192596142 same as ahnentafel number 48148996
192596143 same as ahnentafel number 48148997

192602492 Theodore DE BURGUNDY.

Child:
       96301246       i.       Richard

192602494 Conrad DE BURGUNDY.

Child:
       96301247       i.       Adelheid (Adelaide)

192604418 same as ahnentafel number 24074498
192604419 same as ahnentafel number 24074499

192604468 same as ahnentafel number 48148994
192604469 same as ahnentafel number 48148995

192604626 Holy Roman Emperor Louis II. Born abt 0823. Louis died on 12 Aug 0855, he was 32.[220] Louis married Engelberge. They had one child:
       96302313       i.       Ermengarde (~0855-0897)

192604627 Engelberge. Engelberge died abt 0900.[220]

192604628 Emperor of Byzantium Basil I. Occupation: Emperor of Byzantium 886-912.[221] Basil married Eudocia INGERINA. They had one child:
       96302314       i.       Leo (0866-0912)

192604629 Eudocia INGERINA. Born abt 0840. Eudocia died in 0883, she was 43.[221]

192604640 Torquat (Tortulfe) DE RENNES.

Child:
       96302320       i.       Tertulle (~0821-)


29th Generation
----------------------------------------

385139200 Eafa.[116],[222],[191] Born abt 0732 in Wessex, England. Child:
       192569600       i.       Eahlmund (~0758->0786)

385139464 King of Vestfold Gudrod HALFDANSSON "Mikillati". Gudrod died in 0810.[223]

Child:
       192569732       i.       Olaf (~0770-0840)

385139488 same as ahnentafel number 96297992
385139489 same as ahnentafel number 96297993

385139490 William Count of Toulouse.

Child:
       192569745       i.       Bertha

385139584 King of Danes Ragnar SIGURDSSON "Lodbrok/Hairy Britches". Ragnar died in 0865 in York, England.[224] killed during a raid on York. Occupation: King of Lethra.[225] Children:
       192569792       i.       Sigurd (Snogoje) (-0873)
              ii.       Ivarr (-0873)
              iii.       Halfdan (-0877)
              iv.       Bjorn[131]

385191968 Mayor of the Palace Charles MARTEL. Born in 0689. Charles died on 22 Oct 0741, he was 52.[226] Research: Mayor of Austrasia and Neustria 714-741. Charles married Chrotrude (Rotrou) DE ALEMANIA. They had the following children:
       192595984       i.       Pepin (0714-0768)
              ii.       Carloman (-0754)
              iii.       Grifon
              iv.       Bernard

385191969 Chrotrude (Rotrou) DE ALEMANIA. Chrotrude (Rotrou) died in 0724.[227]

385191970 Count Canbert DE LEON.[228]

Child:
       192595985       i.       Bertrada (0719-0783)

385191974 Count of Linzgau Hnabi VON ALEMAGNA (ALAMANNIA). Occupation: Count of Linzgau in AD 709, 720, 724; Duke of Alamannia.[229] Child:
       192595987       i.       Emma (-0798)

385192282 Begue (Bogo).[230]

Begue (Bogo) married Alpais.

They had one child:
       192596141       i.       Engeltron

385192283 Alpais.

385209252 same as ahnentafel number 48148994
385209253 same as ahnentafel number 48148995


30th Generation
----------------------------------------

770278400 Eoppa.[116],[191],[231] Born abt 0706 in Wessex, England.

Child:
       385139200       i.       Eafa (~0732-)

770278928 Halfdan EYSTEINSSON II.

Child:
       385139464       i.       Gudrod (-0810)

770383936 Mayor of Austrasia Pepin of Heristal.[232] Research: Mayor of Austrasia and Neustria 687-714. Pepin married Alphaida.

They had one child:
       385191968       i.       Charles (0689-0741)

770383937 Alphaida. Alias/AKA: Alpaïs, Aupaïs.

770383938 Liutwin (Leitwinus) DE TREVES. Liutwin (Leitwinus) died in 0713.[233]

Child:
       385191969       i.       Chrotrude (Rotrou) (-0724)

770383948 Houching VON ALEMAGNA (ALAMANNIA).

Child:
       385191974       i.       Hnabi

770384566 same as ahnentafel number 96297992
770384567 same as ahnentafel number 96297993


31st Generation
----------------------------------------

1540556800 Ingeld (Ingild).[116],[231],[234] Born abt 0680 in Wessex, England. Ingeld (Ingild) died in 0718, he was 38.[235]

Child:
       770278400       i.       Eoppa (~0706-)

1540557856 Eystein HALFDANSSON.

Child:
       770278928       i.       Halfdan

1540767872 Mayor of Austrasia Ansegisal (Angise). Born in 0602. Ansegisal (Angise) died in 0678, he was 76.[236],[237] Occupation: Mayor of the Palace to Siegbert, son of Dagobert. Research: Mayor of Austrasia 632-638. bef 0639 when Ansegisal (Angise) was 37, he married Saint Begga.[237] They had one child:
       770383936       i.       Pepin

1540767873 Saint Begga. Begga died in 0694.[237]

1540767876 Count Warinus DE POITIERS. Born abt 0630. Warinus died in 0677, he was 47.[171] Warinus married Kunza DE METZ. They had one child:
       770383938       i.       Liutwin (Leitwinus) (-0713)

1540767877 Kunza DE METZ.

1540767896 Duke Godefroy VON ALEMAGNA (ALAMANNIA). Godefroy died bef 0709.[238] Children:
       770383948       i.       Houching
              ii.       Lentfroy
              iii.       Thibaud
              iv.       Oatillo[239]


32nd Generation
----------------------------------------

3081113600 Cenred.[234],[231] Born abt 0644 in Wessex, England. Cenred died aft 0694, he was 50.

Children:
       1540556800       i.       Ingeld (Ingild) (~0680-0718)
              ii.       Cuthburh
              iii.       Ine[191] (-~0728)

3081115712 King of Uplanders Halfdan OLAFSSON "Huitbein". Halfdan married Asa EYSTEINSDOTTIR. They had one child:
       1540557856       i.       Eystein

3081115713 Asa EYSTEINSDOTTIR.

3081535744 Arnulf Bishop of Metz. Born on 13 Aug 0582.[240] Arnulf died on 16 Aug 0640, he was 58. Arnulf married Dode. They had the following children:
       1540767872       i.       Ansegisal (Angise) (0602-0678)
       3081535754       ii.       Clodoule (~0596-0690)

3081535745 Dode.

3081535746 Mayor of Austrasia Pepin of Landen. Pepin died in 0640.[236],[237] Research: Mayor of Austrasia. Pepin married Itta. They had the following children:
       1540767873       i.       Begga (-0694)
              ii.       Grimoald (-0656)
              iii.       Gertrude

3081535747 Itta.

3081535754 Saint Clodoule DE METZ. Born abt 0596. Clodoule died in 0690, he was 94.[241]

Child:
       1540767877       i.       Kunza


33rd Generation
----------------------------------------

6162227200 Ceolwold.[231] Born abt 0622 in Wessex, England. Ceolwold died aft 0688, he was 66.

Child:
       3081113600       i.       Cenred (~0644->0694)

6162231426 King of the Uplands Eystein "Hardrade". Eystein married Solveig HALFDANSDOTTIR. They had one child:
       3081115713       i.       Asa

6162231427 Solveig HALFDANSDOTTIR.

6163071488 Bodegeisel II. Bodegeisel died in 0588.[242] Bodegeisel married Oda DE SUEVIA. They had one child:
       3081535744       i.       Arnulf (0582-0640)

6163071489 Oda DE SUEVIA.

6163071494 Arnoldus. Occupation: Bishop of Metz.[237]

Child:
       3081535747       i.       Itta

6163071508 same as ahnentafel number 3081535744
6163071509 same as ahnentafel number 3081535745


34th Generation
----------------------------------------

12324454400 Cuthwulf (Cutha).[222],[243] Born bef 0593 in Wessex, England.

Child:
       6162227200       i.       Ceolwold (~0622->0688)

12326142976 Gondolfus Bishop of Tongres. Gondolfus died aft 0598.[244]

Child:
       6163071488       i.       Bodegeisel (-0588)

12326142988 Ansbertus.[245] Occupation: Gallo-Roman Senator of Narbonne.[246] Ansbertus married Blithilde. They had the following children:
       6163071494       i.       Arnoldus
              ii.       Erchenaud

12326142989 Blithilde. Alias/AKA: Bilhisdis.[247]


35th Generation
----------------------------------------

24648908800 King Cuthwine of the West Saxons.[248],[249] Born abt 0564 in Wessex, England. Cuthwine died in Battle of Barbury Hill abt 0593, he was 29. Children:
       12324454400       i.       Cuthwulf (Cutha) (<0593-)
              ii.       Cynebald[234]
              iii.       Ceadda[234]
              iv.       Cynegils

24652285952 Munderic. Born abt 0500. Munderic died in 0532, he was 32.[250] Munderic married Artnemia. They had one child:
       12326142976       i.       Gondolfus (->0598)

24652285953 Artnemia.

24652285976 Ferreolus. Occupation: Senator in Narbonne region.[251] Ferreolus married Dode. They had one child:
       12326142988       i.       Ansbertus

24652285977 Dode. Occupation: Abbess of St. Pierre de Rheims.[251]


36th Generation
----------------------------------------

49297817600 Ceawlin.[252] Born abt 0547 in Wessex, England. Ceawlin died in 0593, he was 46.

Child:
       24648908800       i.       Cuthwine (~0564-~0593)

49304571904 King of Cölogne Cloderic "The Parricide". Cloderic died in 0509.[253]

Child:
       24652285952       i.       Munderic (~0500-0532)

49304571952 Tonantius Ferreolus "Vis Clarisimus". Occupation: senator at Narbonne, Roman Commander at Battle of Chalons.[254] Tonantius Ferreolus married Industria. They had one child:
       24652285976       i.       Ferreolus

49304571953 Industria.


37th Generation
----------------------------------------

98595635200 Cynric.[234],[231] Born abt 0510 in Wessex, England. Cynric died in 0560, he was 50.

Children:
       49297817600       i.       Ceawlin (~0547-0593)
              ii.       Cuthwulf[191]
              iii.       Ceolwulf[234]

98609143808 King of Cölogne Siegbert (Sigebert) I "The Lame". Siegbert (Sigebert) died in 0509.[255] murdered.

Child:
       49304571904       i.       Cloderic (-0509)

98609143904 Praetorian Prefect Tonontius Ferreolus. Occupation: Praetorian Prefect of Gaul (451-453), Gallo Roman senator, served in Rome on the trial of Arvandus, 496.[256],[257] Children:
       49304571952       i.       Tonantius Ferreolus
              ii.       Ruricius (-0506)


38th Generation
----------------------------------------

197191270400 Creoda.[258],[234],[231]

Child:
       98595635200       i.       Cynric (~0510-0560)

197218287616 King of Cölogne Childebert. Childebert died aft 0450.[259]

Child:
       98609143808       i.       Siegbert (Sigebert) (-0509)

197218287808 Ferreolus. Ferreolus had one child:
       98609143904       i.       Tonontius Ferreolus

197218287809 UNNAMED. Alias/AKA: Clarissa Femina.[260]


39th Generation
----------------------------------------

394382540800 King of Wessex Cerdic.[231] Born abt 0470 in Saxony, Germany. Cerdic died in Wessex, England in 0534, he was 64.[191] Occupation: King of the West Saxons.[261]

Child:
       197191270400       i.       Creoda

394436575232 Clovis of Cölogne "The Riparian".[262]

Child:
       197218287616       i.       Childebert (->0450)

394436575618 Flavius Afranius Syagrius. Occupation: Gallo-Roman (Lyons) Consul in 381 A.D., Proconsul in Africa, Magister Officorum Praetorian, Prefect of the West.[263],[264]

Child:
       197218287809       i.       UNNAMED


40th Generation
----------------------------------------

788765081600 Elesa.[231]

Child:
       394382540800       i.       Cerdic (~0470-0534)


1. Savage, James, A Genalogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England Showing Three Generations of Those Who Came Before May, 1692, on the basis of Farmer's Register, 1860, vol 1, p 62.
2. Ibid. vol 1, p 61.
3. New England Families, Genealogical and Memorial, Clearfield Company, Cutter, William Richard, 1913, p 178.
4. Ibid. p 177.
5. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 249-42.
6. Weis, Frederick Lewis, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 5th ed., 1999, line 137-14.
7. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 249-41.
8. Weis, Frederick Lewis, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 5th ed., 1999, line 137-13.
9. Flagg, Ernest, Genealogical Notes on the Founding of New England, Hartford, CT, 1926, p 395.
10. Ibid. p 315.
11. Ibid. p 396.
12. Weis, Frederick Lewis, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 5th ed., 1999, line 137-12.
13. Flagg, Ernest, Genealogical Notes on the Founding of New England, Hartford, CT, 1926, p 309.
14. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 249-40.
15. Ibid. line 249-39.
16. Weis, Frederick Lewis, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 5th ed., 1999, line 137-10.
17. Ibid. line 137-11.
18. Flagg, Ernest, Genealogical Notes on the Founding of New England, Hartford, CT, 1926, p 397.
19. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 249-38.
20. Flagg, Ernest, Genealogical Notes on the Founding of New England, Hartford, CT, 1926, p 392.
21. Ibid. p 394.
22. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 249-37.
23. Weis, Frederick Lewis, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 5th ed., 1999, line 137-8.
24. Flagg, Ernest, Genealogical Notes on the Founding of New England, Hartford, CT, 1926, p 391.
25. Weis, Frederick Lewis, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 5th ed., 1999, line 137-7.
26. Flagg, Ernest, Genealogical Notes on the Founding of New England, Hartford, CT, 1926, p 308.
27. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 249-35.
28. Weis, Frederick Lewis, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 5th ed., 1999, line 137-4.
29. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 249-33.
30. Ibid. line 249-32.
31. Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the UK, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, St. Martin's Press, Inc, 13 Volumes, August 1984, vol 12, p 353-354.
32. Weis, Frederick Lewis, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 5th ed., 1999, line 137-3.
33. Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the UK, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, St. Martin's Press, Inc, 13 Volumes, August 1984, vol 12, p 353.
34. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 255-31.
35. Ibid. line 255-30.
36. Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the UK, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, St. Martin's Press, Inc, 13 Volumes, August 1984, vol 12 ,p 350-351.
37. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 55-28.
38. Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the UK, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, St. Martin's Press, Inc, 13 Volumes, August 1984, vol 12, p 113.
39. Weis, Frederick Lewis, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 5th ed., 1999, line 136-2.
40. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 255-38.
41. Ibid. line 255-28.
42. Weis, Frederick Lewis, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 5th ed., 1999, line 129-1.
43. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 255-27.
44. Ibid. line 149-25.
45. Ibid. line 125-28.
46. Ibid. line 255-26.
47. Ibid. line 149-24.
48. Ibid. line 125-27.
49. Ibid. line 132A-27.
50. Ibid. line 255-25.
51. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956.
52. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 149-23.
53. Ibid. line 155-23; line 149-23.
54. Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the UK, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, St. Martin's Press, Inc, 13 Volumes, August 1984, vol 1, p 235.
55. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 132A-26.
56. Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the UK, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, St. Martin's Press, Inc, 13 Volumes, August 1984, vol 4, Chart 4.
57. Ibid. vol 5, "Chart pedigree of the Earls & Dukes of Gloucester"; vol 4, chart III.
58. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 124-26.
59. Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc, NY, Julian Lock, 1998, First, chart 32, p 482.
60. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 235-21.
61. “http://www.dcs.hull.ac.uk/public/genealogy/royal/.”
62. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 155-22.
63. Ibid. line 149-22A.
64. Ibid. line 132A-25.
65. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, p. 68.
66. Living Descendants of Blood Royal In America. p 3.
67. Royal Ancestors of Magna Charta Barons. pp 86, 227.
68. Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the UK, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, St. Martin's Press, Inc, 13 Volumes, August 1984, vol 5, "Chart pedigree of the Earls & Dukes of Gloucester".
69. Ibid. vol 5, Gloucester pedigree.
70. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 155-21.
71. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, p 155 line 21.
73. Call, Michel L., Royal Ancestors of Some American Families.
74. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992.
75. Langston, Aileen Lewers & Orton Buck, Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Genealogical Publishing Co, Inc., w/foreword by Timothy Field Beard.
76. “European Monarchs (www.royal.gov.uk).”
77. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr.
78. Ibid. line 185-1.
79. Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc, NY, Julian Lock, 1998, First, p 481.
80. Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the UK, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, St. Martin's Press, Inc, 13 Volumes, August 1984, vol 5, p 504; vol 9, p 704.
81. Dictionary of National Biography. vol 18, p 27.
82. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 1-19.
83. Ibid. line 155-20.
84. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, p 155 line 20.
85. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 148-20; line 155-20.
86. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, p 148 line 20.
87. Ibid. p 104 line 34.
88. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 149-21.
89. Ibid. line 151-22.
90. Ibid. line 132A-23.
91. Roberts, Gary Boyd, The royal descents of 500 immigrants to the American colonies or the United States, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 1993.
92. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, p. 103.
93. Langston, Aileen Lewers & Orton Buck, Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Genealogical Publishing Co, Inc., w/foreword by Timothy Field Beard, Vol. 2, pp 186 & 285; Vol 3, p. 117.
94. Barlow, Frank, The Life of King Edward who rests at Westminster (attributed to a monk of Saint-Bertin), Oxford (Clarendon), Edited and translated by and with introduction and notes by Frank Barlow, 2nd, 1992, footnote on p. 62.
95. Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc, NY, Julian Lock, 1998, First, p 478.
96. Anglo Saxon Chronicles. year 965.
97. Dictionary of National Biography. vol 16, p 365.
98. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 1-18.
99. Ibid. line 121E-20.
100. McKitterick, Rosamund, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987, Longman (London), 1983, pp 238-239.
101. Searle, Eleanor, Predatory Kinship and the Creation of Norman Power, 840-1066, University of California Press, 1988.
102. Douglas, David C., William the Conquerer, London, 1964.
103. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 155-19.
104. Ibid. line 151-21.
105. Ibid. line 132A-22.
106. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, p. 102.
107. Langston, Aileen Lewers & Orton Buck, Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Genealogical Publishing Co, Inc., w/foreword by Timothy Field Beard, Vol. 2, pp. 186, 285; Vol 3, p. 117.
108. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 53-21.
109. Ibid. line 101-21.
110. Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc, NY, Julian Lock, 1998, First, p 475.
111. Dictionary of National Biography. vol 16, p 401.
112. McKitterick, Rosamund, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987, Longman (London), 1983, p. 238.
113. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., 7th Ed., p. 110.
114. Keats-Rohan, K. S. B., “Poppa of Bayeux and her Family,” The American Genealogist, The American Genealogist, July/October 1997.
115. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, line 369-38.
116. Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc, NY, Julian Lock, 1998, First.
117. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 155-18.
118. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol 1 table 3 & 57; vol 2 table 1 & 95; vol 3, table 736.
119. Ibid. vol I, tables 3 & 95; vol II, table 1; vol III, table 675A.
120. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 39-21.
121. Ibid. line 166-21; line 142-20.
122. Ibid. line 141-20.
123. “Capetian Dynasty,” www.geocities.com/EnchantedForest/Dell/1376/capet.htm.
124. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 144A-20.
125. Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc, NY, Julian Lock, 1998, First, p 470.
126. Anglo Saxon Chronicles. years 924, 925.
127. Dictionary of National Biography. vol 1, p 157.
128. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol I, table 3; vol II, table 1, 10, & 78; vol III, table 49.
129. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 1-16.
130. Encylopedia Brittanica.
131. Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc, NY, Julian Lock, 1998, First, chart 29, p 458.
132. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line aB-20.
133. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, line 369-39.
134. Ibid. line 368-35.
135. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 155-17.
136. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol I, table 78; vol III, table 49.
137. Ibid. vol II, table 1; vol III, table 49.
138. Duffy, James P. and Vincent L. Ricci, Czars: Russia's Rulers for Over One Thousand Years, Facts on File, Inc., ISBN 0-8160-2873-7, 1995.
139. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol I, table 3.
140. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 151-19.
141. Ibid. line 144A-21.
142. Ibid. line 146-18.
143. Ibid. line 145-19.
144. Ibid. line 143-20.
145. Roberts, Gary Boyd, The royal descents of 500 immigrants to the American colonies or the United States, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 1993, p 446.
146. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 110-23; line 144A-19.
147. Ibid. line 144A-19.
148. Ibid. line 110-23.
149. Ibid. line 141A-19.
150. Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc, NY, Julian Lock, 1998, First, p 319.
151. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol II, table 5 & 78.
152. Dictionary of National Biography. vol 1, pp 153-162.
153. Anglo Saxon Chronicles. years 853, 871, 891, 894, 897, 901.
154. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 1-15.
155. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol II, table 78.
156. Ibid. vol ii, table 79.
157. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, line 369-40.
158. Langston, Aileen Lewers & Orton Buck, Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Genealogical Publishing Co, Inc., w/foreword by Timothy Field Beard, p. 185.
159. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, p. 30.
160. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol I, table 2; vol II, table 1, 5, & 78; vol III, table 692.
161. Ibid. vol i, table 2; vol ii, table 1.
162. Ibid. vol II, table 1.
163. Ibid. vol II, table 1 & 78.
164. Williams, George L., Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes, McFarland & Co., Jefferson, NC, USA, 1998, chart 2, p 18.
165. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol ii, table 10; vol iii, table 49.
166. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 141A-18.
167. Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc, NY, Julian Lock, 1998, First, p 316.
168. Anglo Saxon Chronicles. years 823, 836, 840, 853, 854.
169. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 1-14.
170. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol ii, table 79 & 105.
171. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., p 50.
172. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol iii, table 49.
173. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, line 369-41.
174. Settipani, Christian, La préhistoire des Cap‚tiens 481-987.
175. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol i, table 2 & 95.
176. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 141B-15.
177. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol i, table 2.
178. Langston, Aileen Lewers & Orton Buck, Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Genealogical Publishing Co, Inc., w/foreword by Timothy Field Beard, Vol 2, p 185; Vol 3, p 116.
179. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, pp. 130-141.
180. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol i, table 2 & 57; vol ii, table 76 & 188A; vol iii, table 736.
181. Ibid. vol i, table 2 & 57; vol iii, table 736.
182. Ibid. vol ii, table 5, 10, 46, & 79; vol iii, table 49.
183. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, line 239-35; line 188-38; line 231-36; line 235-36.
184. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol ii, table 186; vol iii, table 590 & 662B.
185. Ibid. vol i, table 11; vol ii, table 10; vol iii, table 49.
186. Ibid. vol 2, table 10.
187. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 141B-18.
188. Ibid. line 141A-17.
189. Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc, NY, Julian Lock, 1998, First, p 313.
190. Anglo Saxon Chronicles. years 800, 823, 825, 827, 828, 836.
191. Yorke, Barbara, Kings and Kingdoms of early Anglo-Saxon England, Seaby, London, 1990, p 134.
192. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 1-13.
193. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, line 166-38.
194. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol i, table 2; vol iii, table 49.
195. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, line 369-42.
196. Langston, Aileen Lewers & Orton Buck, Pedigrees of some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Genealogical Publishing Co, Inc., w/foreword by Timothy Field Beard, Vol. 2 p. 185; Vol 3, p. 116.
197. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, pp. 41, 130, 193.
198. Hearder and Waley, A Short History of Italy, Univ. of Cambridge Press, p. 32.
199. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 182-5.
200. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol i, table 57; vol iii, table 736.
201. Ibid. vol ii, table 188A; vol iii, table 657.
202. Ibid. vol ii, table 188A.
203. Searle, W. G., Anglo-Saxon Bishops, Kings and Nobles, Cambridge 1899, p. 343.
204. Heer, Friedrich, Charlemagne and his World, Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., NY, ISBN 0-02-550450-9, 1975, pp 244, 247.
205. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 145-16.
206. Schwennicke, Detlev (editor), Europaische Stammtafeln : Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, 1956, vol ii, table 104; vol iii, table 590.
207. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., p 50, line 17.
208. Ibid. line 181-5.
209. Ibid. line 141B-17.
210. Ibid. line 141A-16.
211. Anglo Saxon Chronicles. years 784, 854.
212. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, line 166-39.
213. Ibid. line 369-43.
214. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 50-12; line 190-12.
215. Ibid. line 50 -12.
216. Deposit, Delaware Co., NY, Registry of Deaths, Page 127 Number 41.
217. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 190-13.
218. Ibid. line 182-4.
219. Ibid. line 192-15.
220. Ibid. line 141B-16.
221. Ibid. line 141A-15.
222. Anglo Saxon Chronicles. year 854.
223. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, line 166-40.
224. Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc, NY, Julian Lock, 1998, First, p 738.
225. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, line 369-44.
226. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 50-11; line 190-11; line 191-11.
227. Ibid. line 50-11.
228. Ibid. line 50-12.
229. Ibid. line 182-3.
230. Ibid. line 191-14.
231. Anglo Saxon Chronicles.
232. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 190-10.
233. Ibid. line 50-10.
234. Yorke, Barbara, Kings and Kingdoms of early Anglo-Saxon England, Seaby, London, 1990.
235. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 1-9.
236. Duffy, James P. and Vincent L. Ricci, Czars: Russia's Rulers for Over One Thousand Years, Facts on File, Inc., ISBN 0-8160-2873-7, 1995, p 268.
237. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 190-9.
238. Ibid. line 182-1.
239. Ibid. line 182-2.
240. Ibid. line 190-8.
241. Ibid. p 190.
242. Ibid. line 190-7.
243. Ibid. line 1-6.
244. Ibid. line 190-6.
245. Ibid. line 180-5.
246. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, Gallo-Roman Senator48.
247. Ibid. line 236-48.
248. Anglo Saxon Chronicles. year 577, 854.
249. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 1-5.
250. Ibid. line 190-5.
251. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, ine 236-49.
252. Anglo Saxon Chronicles. years 560, 568, 591, 593, 854.
253. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 190-4.
254. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, ine 236-50.
255. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 190-3.
256. Ibid. line 180-3.
257. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, ine 236-51.
258. Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc, NY, Julian Lock, 1998, First, p. 300.
259. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 190-2.
260. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, line 236-52.
261. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral roots of certain American colonists who, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 7th ed., with additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr., line 1-1.
262. Ibid. line 190-1.
263. Ibid. line 180-1.
264. Stuart, Roderick W., Royalty for commoners: the complete known lineage of John of Gaunt, Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd Ed., 1992, line 236-53.


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